1876 illustration by True Williams
|First appearance||The Adventures of Tom Sawyer|
|Last appearance||Tom Sawyer, Detective|
|Created by||Mark Twain|
|Family||Aunt Polly (aunt) |
Sally Phelps (aunt)
Thomas Sawyer (//) is the title character of the Mark Twain novel The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876). He appears in three other novels by Twain: Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884), Tom Sawyer Abroad (1894), and Tom Sawyer, Detective (1896).
Sawyer also appears in at least three unfinished Twain works, Huck and Tom Among the Indians, Schoolhouse Hill and Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy. While all three uncompleted works were posthumously published, only Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy has a complete plot, as Twain abandoned the other two works after finishing only a few chapters.
Tom Sawyer is a boy of about 12 years of age, who resides in the fictional town of St. Petersburg, Missouri, in about the year 1845. Tom Sawyer's best friends include Joe Harper and Huckleberry Finn. In The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, Tom's infatuation with classmate Becky Thatcher is apparent as he tries to intrigue her with his strength, boldness, and handsome looks. He first sees her after he confessed his feelings for Amy Lawrence, one of his classmates. He lives with his half-brother Sid, his cousin Mary, and his stern Aunt Polly. There is no mention of Tom's father, as Tom's mother and father are dead. Tom has another aunt, Sally Phelps, who lives very much farther down the Mississippi.
In Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Tom is only a minor character and is used as a foil for Huck, particularly in the later chapters of the novel after Huck makes his way to Uncle Phelps's plantation. Tom's immaturity, imagination, and obsession with stories put Huck's planned rescue of the runaway slave Jim in great jeopardy — and ultimately make it unnecessary since he knows Jim's owner has died and freed him in her will. Throughout the novel, Huck's intellectual and emotional development is a central theme, and by re-introducing a character from the beginning (Tom), Twain is able to highlight this evolution in Huck's character.
The fictional character's name may have been derived from a jolly and flamboyant chief named Tom Sawyer with whom Twain was acquainted in San Francisco, California, while Twain was employed as a reporter at the San Francisco Call. Twain used to listen to Sawyer tell stories of his youth, "Sam, he would listen to these pranks of mine with great interest and he'd occasionally take 'em down in his notebook. One day he says to me: ‘I am going to put you between the covers of a book some of these days, Tom.’ ‘Go ahead, Sam,’ I said, ‘but don’t disgrace my name.’" Twain himself said the character sprang from three people, later identified as: John B. Briggs (who died in 1907), William Bowen (who died in 1893) and Twain; however Twain later changed his story saying Sawyer was fully formed solely from his imagination, but as Robert Graysmith says, "The great appropriator liked to pretend his characters sprang fully grown from his fertile mind."
Actors who have portrayed Tom Sawyer in films and TV:
- Jack Pickford (1917)
- Gordon Griffith (1920)
- Jackie Coogan (1930 and 1931)
- Tommy Kelly (1938)
- Billy Cook (1938)
- Michael Miller (1944)
- Robert Hyatt (1955, TV)
- Kevin Schultz (1968 in the TV series The New Adventures of Huckleberry Finn)
- Johnny Whitaker (1973)
- Don Most (1975)
- Sam Snyders (1979)
- Chris Ritchie (1985 in The Adventures of Mark Twain)
- Eugene Oakes (1986)
- Raphael Sbarge (1990 in Back to Hannibal: The Return of Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn)
- Jonathan Taylor Thomas (1995)
- Rhett Akins (2000, voice)
- Grey Griffin (2003 in The Fairly Oddparents)
- Shane West (2003 in The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen)
- Louis Hofmann (2011, German Version of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer)
- Leon Seidel (2012, German Version of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn)
- Joel Courtney (2014)
- Adam Nee (2015)
- Jeremy Shada (2015 in the 3DS game Code Name: S.T.E.A.M.)
- Reilly Jacob (2016 in the TV series Once Upon a Time)