Upper Sepik languages

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Upper Sepik
Sandaun Province and western East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea
Linguistic classificationSepik
  • Upper Sepik

The Upper Sepik languages are a group of languages generally classified among the Sepik languages of northern Papua New Guinea.[1]

They include the Wogamus languages and Iwam languages. Foley (2018) also includes Abau.[1]


The Upper Sepik languages are:

Being typologically and lexically diverse, the three groups are not closely related to each other.[1] Foley classifies the three groups together on the basis of a unique noun classification system present in thee numeral systems of all three groups.

Foley observes that much of the lexicon and pronouns of Upper Sepik languages do not derive from proto-Sepik.[1]


  1. ^ a b c d Foley, William A. (2018). "The Languages of the Sepik-Ramu Basin and Environs". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 197–432. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  • Ross, Malcolm (2005). "Pronouns as a preliminary diagnostic for grouping Papuan languages". In Andrew Pawley; Robert Attenborough; Robin Hide; Jack Golson (eds.). Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 15–66. ISBN 0858835622. OCLC 67292782.