(President & CEO)
|Revenue||CA$392.6 million (2018)|
|CA$-272.6 million (2018)|
|Total assets||CA$1,467 million (2018)|
Number of employees
|Dates of operation||1977–present|
|Predecessor||CN and CP passenger services|
|Track gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm)|
|Length||12,500 km (7,800 mi)|
Via Rail Canada (reporting mark VIA) (//; generally shortened to Via Rail or Via; styled corporately as VIA Rail Canada) is an independent Crown corporation of Canada. Via Rail is mandated to operate intercity passenger rail service across the country and is subsidized by Transport Canada.
Via Rail operates over 500 trains per week across eight Canadian provinces and 12,500 kilometres (7,800 mi) of track, 97% of which is owned and maintained by other railway companies, mostly by Canadian National Railway (CN). Via Rail carried approximately 4.39 million passengers in 2017, the majority on routes along the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor and had an on-time performance of 73 per cent.
- 1 History
- 1.1 Background
- 1.2 1977: Formation of Via Rail Canada
- 1.3 1981: Service cuts
- 1.4 1985: Service restoration
- 1.5 1990–1994: More service cuts
- 1.6 2000–2003: Renaissance funding
- 1.7 2003–04: Renaissance II proposal and cancellation
- 1.8 2004–05: Service cuts
- 1.9 2004: Via's role in the sponsorship scandal
- 1.10 2005–2009: Increasing problems and reinstated funding
- 1.11 2009–10: Labour difficulties
- 1.12 2011–2013: Service cuts
- 1.13 2014–present: Service improvements
- 1.14 2017: Via Rail 150 Pass controversy
- 1.15 2018: new corridor fleet
- 2 Plans for expansion
- 3 Budget and management
- 4 Travelling on Via
- 5 Routes and connections
- 6 Rolling stock
- 7 Carbon emissions
- 8 Accidents and incidents
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
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Yearly passenger levels on Canada's passenger trains peaked at 60 million during World War II. Following the war the growth of air travel and the personal automobile caused significant loss of mode share for Canada's passenger train operators. By the 1960s it was obvious to both Canadian National Railway (CN) and the Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) that passenger trains were no longer economically viable. CP sought to divest itself of its passenger trains, but federal government regulators and politicians balked, forcing them to maintain a minimal service through the 1970s, with the government subsidizing up to 80% of losses. CN, being a Crown corporation at that time, was encouraged by the federal government and political interests to invest in passenger trains. Innovative marketing schemes such as Red, White, and Blue fares, new equipment such as scenic dome cars and rail diesel cars, and services such as Rapido and the UAC TurboTrain trains temporarily increased numbers of passengers, reversing previous declines.:4–5
These increases proved temporary: by 1977 total passenger numbers had dropped below five million. The decline of passenger rail became a federal election issue in 1974 when the government of Pierre Trudeau promised to implement a nationwide carrier similar to Amtrak in the United States. Starting in 1976, CN began branding its passenger services with the bilingual name Via or Via CN. The Via logo began to appear on CN passenger locomotives and cars, while still carrying CN logos as well. That September, Via published a single timetable with information on both CN and CP trains, marking the first time that Canadians could find all major passenger trains in one publication. In 1977, CN underwent a dramatic restructuring when it placed various non-core freight railway activities into separate subsidiaries, such as ferries under CN Marine, and passenger trains under Via Rail which was subsequently renamed Via Rail Canada.:6–9
1977: Formation of Via Rail Canada
On January 12, 1977, CN spun off its passenger services as a separate Crown corporation, Via Rail Canada. At its inception, Via acquired all CN passenger cars and locomotives. Following several months of negotiation, on October 29, 1978, Via took over operation of CP passenger train services, and took possession of cars and locomotives. Passenger train services which were not included in the creation of Via Rail included those offered by BC Rail, Algoma Central Railway, Ontario Northland Railway, Quebec North Shore and Labrador Railway, various urban commuter train services operated by CN and CP, and remaining CN passenger services in Newfoundland. At this time, Via did not own any trackage and had to pay right-of-way fees to CN and CP, sometimes being the only user of rural branch lines.
Via initially had a tremendous variety of equipment, with much of it in need of replacement, and operated routes stretching from Sydney, Nova Scotia to Prince Rupert, British Columbia and north to Churchill, Manitoba. Over 150 scheduled trains per week were in operation, including transcontinental services, regional trains, and corridor services.
While Via is an independent federal Crown corporation mandated to operate as a business, it is hindered by the fact that it was created by an Order in Council of the Privy Council, and not from legislation passed by Parliament. If Via were enabled by legislation, the company could be permitted to seek funding on the open money markets as other Crown corporations such as CN have done in the past. It is largely for this reason that critics say Via is vulnerable to federal budget cuts and continues to answer first to its political masters, as opposed to the business decisions needed to ensure the viability of intercity passenger rail service.
1981: Service cuts
Greater numbers of passengers would not be Via's saviour. In 1981, Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau's government endorsed Minister of Transport Jean-Luc Pépin's plan which cut Via's budget, leading to a 40% reduction in the company's operations. Gone were frequently sold-out trains such as the Super Continental (which reduced Via to operating only one transcontinental train, The Canadian) and the popular Atlantic, among others.
Via also sought to reduce its reliance on over 30-year-old second-hand equipment and placed a significant order with Bombardier Transportation for new high-speed locomotives and cars which would be used in its corridor trains. The LRC (Light, Rapid, Comfortable) locomotives and cars used advanced technology such as active tilt to increase speed, but proved troublesome and took several years to work out problems (by 1990 only a handful of LRC locomotives remained in service which were subsequently retired by the arrival of the GE Genesis locomotives in 2001).
1985: Service restoration
The election of Brian Mulroney's government in 1984 brought a friend to Via, initially, when several of Mulroney's commitments included rescinding the Via cuts of 1981 by restoring the Super Continental (under pressure from his western caucus), and the Atlantic (under pressure from his eastern caucus and the then-Saint John mayor Elsie Wayne). Prime Minister Mulroney's government gave Via funding to refurbish some of its cars, and purchase new locomotives, this time a more reliable model from General Motors Diesel Division.
It was during this time on February 8, 1986, that Via's eastbound Super Continental collided with a CN freight train near Hinton, Alberta, as a result of the freight train crew missing a signal light. The resulting head-on crash killed 23 people.
1990–1994: More service cuts
By the late 1980s, inflation and other rising costs were taking their toll on federal budgets and in the Mulroney government's 1989 budget, Via again saw its budget slashed, surpassing even the 1981 cuts under Trudeau. Minister of Transport Benoît Bouchard oversaw the reduction in service on January 15, 1990, when Via's operations were reduced by 55%.
Services such as the Super Continental were cut again, along with numerous disparate rural services such as in Nova Scotia's Annapolis Valley and Cape Breton Island, western Canada, and in the corridor. The Canadian was also moved from its 'home' rails on CP to the northerly CN route (which the Super Continental had used). The shift to the less-populated (and less scenic) route between Toronto, Ontario and Vancouver, British Columbia severed major western cities such as Regina, Saskatchewan and Calgary, Alberta from the passenger rail network and flared western bitterness toward the Government of Canada.
The official justification for the rerouting was that the trains would serve more remote communities, but the concentration of ridings held by the Progressive Conservatives along the CN route attracted the charge that the move was chiefly political. Harvie André, one of Alberta's federal cabinet ministers who represented Calgary, stated publicly that he did not care if he never saw a passenger train again in his life.
After these cuts, Via was a much smaller company and immediately took to rationalizing its fleet of cars and locomotives, resulting in a fleet of refurbished stainless steel (HEP-1 and HEP-2 rebuilds, for "head end power") and LRC cars, as well as rationalizing its locomotive fleet with GM and Bombardier (LRC) units.
Via was not spared from further cutbacks in Jean Chrétien's government elected in 1993. Minister of Finance Paul Martin's first budget in 1994 saw further Via cuts which saw the popular Atlantic dropped from the schedule, focusing the eastern transcontinental service on the Ocean. CP had sold off a large portion of the track the Atlantic had operated on and, as Via at that time was only mandated to provide passenger services on tracks belonging to CN or CP, the route was discontinued.
This move was seen as somewhat controversial and politically motivated as the principal cities benefiting from the Atlantic's service were Sherbrooke, Quebec and Saint John, New Brunswick, where the only two Progressive Conservative Party Members of Parliament in Canada were elected in the 1993 federal election in which Chrétien's Liberal Party took power. The Ocean service which was preserved operates on track between Montreal and Halifax running through the lower St. Lawrence River valley and northern New Brunswick. The Minister of Transport in Chrétien's government at the time, Douglas Young, was elected from a district that included Bathurst, New Brunswick, on the Ocean's route. A remote Via service to Quebec's Gaspé Peninsula, the Chaleur was also spared from being cut at this time, despite carrying fewer passengers than the Atlantic.
2000–2003: Renaissance funding
By the late 1990s, with a rail-friendly Minister of Transport, David Collenette, in office, there were modest funding increases to Via. Corridor services were improved with new and faster trains, a weekly tourist train The Bras d'Or returned Via service to Cape Breton Island for the first time since the 1990 cuts, and a commitment was made to continue operating on Vancouver Island, but western Canada continued to languish with the only service provided by the Canadian and a few remote service trains in northern BC and Manitoba.
In a significant new funding program dubbed "Renaissance", a fleet of unused passenger cars which had been built for planned Nightstar sleeper services between locations in the United Kingdom and Continental Europe, via the Channel Tunnel, were purchased and adapted following the cancellation of the Nightstar project. The new "Renaissance" cars were swiftly nicknamed déplaisance ("displeasure") by French-speaking employees and customers, due to early problems adapting the equipment for Canadian use. Doors and toilets froze in cold Atlantic Canada temperatures, resulting in delays and service interruptions. New diesel-electric P42DC locomotives purchased from General Electric allowed the withdrawal of older locomotives, including the remaining LRC locomotives. The LRC passenger cars were retained and continued to provide much of the Corridor service. This expansion to Via's fleet has permitted scheduling flexibility, particularly in the corridor. Additionally, many passenger stations have been remodelled into passenger-friendly destinations, with several hosting co-located transit and regional bus hubs for various municipalities.
2003–04: Renaissance II proposal and cancellation
On October 24, 2003, federal Minister of Transport David Collenette announced $700 million in new funding over the next five years. This funding was far below the $3 billion needed to implement a high-speed rail proposal in the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor nicknamed ViaFast; however, the funding was intended to "provide for faster, more frequent and more reliable passenger service across Canada... [preserving] the option for higher speed rail, such as the Via Fast proposal" said Collenette. This new project was to be called "Renaissance II". Critics[who?] of "Renaissance II" noted that the majority of spending would take place in the corridor services and not add new trains or improved scheduling to Atlantic and Western Canada.
On December 18, 2003, Prime Minister Paul Martin announced a freeze in federal spending on all major capital projects, including Via's five-year $700 million capital investment 'Renaissance II' program announced just six weeks earlier by outgoing Prime Minister Chrétien's administration. Critics of Martin's cuts claimed that he was in a distinct conflict of interest as his family through Canada Steamship Lines and various subsidiary and affiliated companies had once had a significant investment in the Voyageur Colonial Bus Lines, an intercity bus line in Quebec and eastern Ontario that is a key competitor of Via Rail.
2004–05: Service cuts
Route cuts under the Martin government included the withdrawal of the seasonal Bras d'Or tourist train, which ran for the last time in September 2004, and the Montreal-Toronto overnight Enterprise, which was discontinued in September 2005. The Sarnia–Chicago International was also discontinued in April 2004 by Amtrak. Via's portion of the route from Toronto-Sarnia remained in operation as Via was able to use their own equipment to operate the train.
2004: Via's role in the sponsorship scandal
The federal Auditor General's report released publicly on February 10, 2004, showed what appeared to be a criminal misdirection of government funds intended for advertising to key Quebec-based supporters of the Liberal Party of Canada. (See sponsorship scandal.) Included in the Auditor General's report was the fact that Via Rail was used as one of several federal government departments, agencies, and Crown corporations to funnel these illicit funds. Forced to act on the Auditor General's report due to its political implications, Prime Minister Paul Martin's government suspended Via Rail President Marc LeFrançois on February 24, 2004, giving him an ultimatum of several days to defend himself against allegations in the report or face further disciplinary action.
Several days later, during LeFrançois's suspension, a former Via Rail marketing department employee, Myriam Bédard, claimed she was fired several years earlier when she questioned company billing practices in dealing with advertising companies. (According to CBC News, an arbitrator's report later concluded that Bédard had voluntarily left Via Rail.) She was publicly belittled by Via Rail Chief Executive Officer Jean Pelletier in national media on February 27, 2004. Pelletier retracted his statements but on March 1, 2004, Pelletier was fired. On March 5, 2004, after failing to defend himself adequately against the allegations in the Auditor General's report, LeFrançois was fired as well.
2005–2009: Increasing problems and reinstated funding
The reversal of funding in 2003 led to a backlog of deferred maintenance and left Via unable to replace or refurbish life-expired locomotives and rolling stock. Regardless, Via ridership increased from 3.8 million in 2005 to 4.1 million in 2006.
On October 11, 2007, Finance Minister Jim Flaherty announced federal government funding of $691.9 million over five years, of which $519 million is capital funding, and the remainder additional operating funding. The capital funding is earmarked to refurbish Via's fleet of 54 F40PH-2 locomotives to meet new emissions standards and extend their service lives by 15–20 years, refurbish the interiors of the LRC coaches, reduce track capacity bottlenecks and speed restrictions in the Windsor-Quebec City Corridor, and make repairs to a number of stations across the network.
This announcement is similar in content to the previous Renaissance II package, and once again can be criticized for not including any new equipment or funding for services outside the Corridor. Shortly after this announcement was made, documents obtained by The Canadian Press under the Access to Information Act revealed that delays due to equipment failures had risen by 60% since the previous year. The company attributed this to problems with the aging F40 locomotive fleet.
On January 27, 2009, the Government of Canada announced in its 2009 Economic Action Plan that it would increase funding to Via by $407 million to support improvements to passenger rail services, including higher train frequencies and enhanced on-time performance and speed, particularly in the Montreal-Ottawa-Toronto corridor.
2009–10: Labour difficulties
On July 21, 2009, Via Rail announced that its engineers would go on strike as of July 24 if no deal was reached by then, and began cancelling all trains in anticipation of strike. The strike officially began at midnight on July 24 after it became clear that no deal had been reached. Engineers had been without a contract since December 31, 2006. Full service resumed on July 27, 2009.
2011–2013: Service cuts
The Victoria–Courtenay service on Vancouver Island was suspended indefinitely in March 2011 due to deteriorating track.
On June 27, 2012, Via Rail announced another round of budget cuts to be achieved by reducing service:
- The Canadian was reduced from 3 days a week to 2 days a week beginning in November 2012, service will be 2 days a week from November to April during off peak season and returning to 3 per week during peak season from May to October.
- The Ocean was reduced from 6 days a week to 3 days a week beginning in October 2012.
- Corridor services west of Toronto were reduced, and there will be weekend service reductions to Montreal and Ottawa, Ontario.
- Corridor services to Sarnia and Niagara Region were reduced to one per day starting in October 2012, with some cuts starting in July 2012. Sarnia was left with only one train each way per day. Niagara Falls lost all service except the joint Amtrak-Via Maple Leaf service, although similar service is now provided by GO Transit.
- Corridor services to Kitchener, London, and Windsor were reduced to fewer trains per day starting in October 2012, though still at least two each way.
- In September 2013, the Gaspé service, which had been replaced by bus service sometime in 2011, was suspended indefinitely.
2014–present: Service improvements
No service cuts have occurred since 2012, with recent service restorations and improvements in the Quebec-Windsor corridor being implemented. More trips have been added between Ottawa, Montreal, and Toronto, a direct route was restored between Ottawa and Quebec City, and the LRC passenger cars used for the corridor completed refurbishment in 2016, most notably.
2017: Via Rail 150 Pass controversy
In March 2017 Via Rail announced the release of a new category of rail pass valid for the month of July 2017 (corresponding to Canada's sesquicentennial celebrations) for youth aged 18–25, costing $150 (several hundred dollars cheaper than a comparable rail pass would typically cost). A larger than expected response resulted in the loss of functionality for Via's website for a time. Despite plans to cap the number of passes sold at 1867, the year of Canadian Confederation, over 4,000 passes were ultimately sold. The company received significant backlash, as it initially appeared that there was no limit on the number of passes available.
2018: new corridor fleet
On December 12, 2018, Via Rail announced that it had awarded a contract to Siemens Canada for 32 trainsets to replace the entire Quebec City–Windsor Corridor fleet . This marked the completion of a procurement process which was launched following the 2018 federal budget, which allocated funding for the fleet replacement. During the request-for-proposals stage Via had narrowed the potential suppliers down to Siemens, Bombardier, Talgo and Stadler. Siemens was ultimately selected after finishing first on the key criteria, which included the ability to deliver in a timely fashion, the quality of the product offering and the price. The new fleet will consist of Siemens Charger locomotives hauling a combination of coaches, business-class cars, and cab cars from the Siemens Viaggio Comfort series to allow bi-directional operation. The trains will be built at Siemens plant in California, and Siemens committed to including at least 20% Canadian content in the final product. The order includes an option for an additional 16 trainsets, to be exercised if the federal government approves Via's high-frequency dedicated-corridor project. The first trainset is to be delivered for testing by winter 2021, with the first sets in service by 2022 and all trains in service by 2024. The delivery of the new trains will allow Via to retire the LRC and Renaissance equipment from the corridor, and re-allocate the HEP2 and corridor-based HEP1 cars to other parts of the network.
Plans for expansion
- In 2015, Via announced it was exploring the introduction of daily regional service in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick (connecting Halifax, Moncton, and Campbellton) to complement the thrice-weekly Ocean service to Montreal. In an interview, Via Rail president Yves Desjardins-Siciliano also noted that the subsidy for passenger rail travel in Canada in 2015 was about 200 per cent: for every $1 travellers spend on fares, Canada pays $2 in subsidy. As of 2017, Via's statement was that it was "exploring an eastern intercity corridor service" and that further developments were dependent on infrastructure upgrades and equipment testing.
- Via Rail touts its "high-frequency" service plan as the next step for a significant improvement in service in Via's Quebec City–Windsor corridor. As a response to delays faced by sharing tracks with freight trains, the plan opts for a dedicated track between Toronto, Ottawa, and Montreal, offering more frequent trains (although running at conventional speeds). Feasibility studies have been funded by the federal government since the 2016 budget, and the 2018 budget allowed for the funding of the fleet replacement portion of the plan, though not the dedicated rail lines.
- Via has expressed an interest in operating commuter rail service in Halifax, Nova Scotia that would run from the city's downtown station as far as Windsor Junction. As of December 2018, implementation of this commuter service was dependent on CN, with a Halifax councillor quoted as saying, "VIA always said that with good news, they could have it up and running within a year." 
- Two former Via routes, the Victoria–Courtenay train (service ended in 2011) and the Montreal–Gaspé train (service ended in 2013), are currently suspended due to poor track conditions. Via plans to reintroduce service once track upgrades have been completed. The Quebec government announced funds for repairs to the Gaspé trackage in 2017, with a completion date stated only as being "several years away." No concrete plan to restore the trackage on Vancouver Island has yet been announced.
Budget and management
Via Rail is operated as an independent crown corporation and receives a subsidy from the Minister of Transport to provide service to remote communities. Via Rail operates more than 500 trains per week from coast to coast. The sum of $369 million was earned from passenger revenues in 2018. Over 4.74 million passenger voyages were taken in 2018. An on-time ratio of 71% was achieved in that year. Over 3,115 persons were employed by VIA Rail by the end of 2018.
As of May 2019, the Chair of the Board of Directors is Françoise Bertrand, while the President and CEO is Cynthia Garneau; there are 11 other persons on the Board of Directors at the same year.The Annual accounts of Via Rail are audited to GAAP principles by the Auditor-General of Canada, under the Financial Administration Act. Via Rail Canada Inc. is incorporated under the CBCA and is subject to income taxes, should a profit ever be declared by it. The corporation had $9,300,000 in share capital as of 2018. Via Rail also received $394.4 million of government funding in 2018.
In May 2019, Cynthia Garneau was appointed as the new CEO of VIA Rail. She replaced Yves Desjardins-Siciliano, who completed his five-year mandate on May 8, 2019.
Travelling on Via
Travel on Via varies by region as much as class. Many of Via's policies and protocols are the product of running a national train system with varying pressures and needs of different passengers, communities, and contexts. The results are wide-ranging travel experiences depending on the distance and location of the journey.
Classes of service
- Economy: Economy class seating in coach cars. Passengers are usually assigned seats except trains 54, 97, 98, 650 and 651, where passengers are separated based on train cars according to destination. Snacks and beverages are sold by employees with service carts or in a restaurant car. Free Wi-Fi access is provided in the Corridor and on the Ocean.
- Business: (formerly called VIA 1): First-class seating available on most Corridor trains in southern Quebec and Ontario. Business class offers passengers individually reserved seats, more spacious seating, window blinds, inclusive hot three-course meals complete with complimentary wine and liqueurs, in-seat AC power outlets, and free Wi-Fi access. Business-class passengers are also granted priority boarding and access to business lounges at major urban stations.
- Touring: Available on the Skeena only in peak travel months. Includes three meals per day, wine with supper, on-train commentary from the staff, and guaranteed access to the Panoramic and Park cars.
- Sleeper Plus: Sleeping accommodations aboard overnight trains. This service class was formerly known as Sleeper in some cases, including on the now-suspended Montreal–Gaspé train. Available on the Canadian, Ocean and Winnipeg-Churchill trains. Options for this class on the Canadian include berth sections and single, double and triple bedrooms with bunkbeds and electrical outlets. On other trains, not all options are available. Also included are first-class meals in the dining car, and access to the "Skyline" car and viewing salons in the glass-domed "Park" car, when available. Passengers are also given priority boarding and access to the Panorama Lounges at major urban stations. Each car has access to a washroom and, optionally, a shower. Access to business lounges where available or the Sleeper Plus Lounge in Halifax is available on departure day.
- Prestige: Via's latest premium service offering available on the Canadian only. In addition to the Sleeper Plus amenities, includes modernized luxurious sleeping accommodations at the rear of the train, priority reservations in the dining car, a concierge, complimentary beverages (including alcohol), and schedule permitting, a free tour of select Winnipeg attractions. Access to business lounges is provided on both arrival and departure days in Toronto and Vancouver.
Smoking is prohibited on all Via trains. It has been banned on the Corridor routes since 1993 and this policy was gradually extended to all trains. The last remaining on-board smoking was permitted in a smoker's lounge on some long-distance routes, only at certain times of day until 2002. Washrooms are provided for each car. On sleeper cars, every private room has its own separate washroom. Food service varies by train. All trains save the Sudbury – White River train offer snacks, light meals, and both alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages for purchase. Long-distance trains offer traditional sit-down dining and full meals to sleeper class passengers. Economy-class passengers can purchase hot take-out meals prepared in the dining car on long-distance trains during the peak season, and eat in the sit-down dining car in the off-peak.
There is complimentary Wi-Fi service available in the Corridor. The present Wi-Fi system is provided by 21Net since November 2008. Previously, the Wi-Fi service was provided by Parsons commencing in February 2006. Via had upgraded the past Wi-Fi system during 2011 with technology provided by Nomad Digital. Via Rail was the first North American transportation service to offer Wi-Fi to its passengers in early 2006, and was one of the first in the world to do so. Wi-Fi is also available to travellers in all classes of service who may benefit from complimentary Wi-Fi service in many Quebec City–Windsor corridor stations. Wi-Fi service has been added to the Ocean train (Montreal–Halifax) in the "service" cars and to the Canadian.
Via offers checked luggage on its longer-haul services; however, in the Corridor only certain trains have luggage cars. In older class cars there is sufficient space at the front of the car for luggage storage. In contrast, the Renaissance stock has enough space (underneath the seat) for only one small piece of carry-on luggage; the remainder must be checked.
Accessibility and safety concerns
Via offers pre-boarding assistance to those passengers requiring extra time to board its trains. Not all stations are equally accessible; some have high-level platforms or mechanical lifts. All Via trains are capable of accommodating wheelchairs, although capacity is limited.
Routes and connections
Via Rail operates in the provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Quebec, and Saskatchewan. The only province or territory connected to the continental railway network and not served by Via is the Northwest Territories. Newfoundland and Labrador, Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, and Yukon have no rail connections to the continental network and thus no Via service.
Via operates over 475 trains per week over nineteen routes, marketed in four broad categories:
- Ontario and Quebec: Corridor service, comprising frequent regional and local trains between major cities in a band from Southwestern Ontario to Quebec City. The vast majority of Via's trains – over 400 per week – operate here. Cities served by Corridor trains include Windsor, Sarnia, London, Toronto, Kingston, Ottawa, Montreal, and Quebec City. In 2017, corridor service accounted for 94% of Via's ridership and 75% of its revenue.
- The Maritime Way: The Ocean, providing long-distance service between Quebec and the Maritime provinces. In 2017, the Ocean accounted for 2% of Via's ridership and 3% of its revenue.
- The Great Western Way: The Canadian, providing both long-distance service between Southern Ontario and Western Canada, as well as essential rail services through Northern Ontario. In 2017, the Canadian accounted for 2% of Via's ridership and 20% of its revenue.
- Adventure Routes: Five regional and long-distance routes that offer essential rail transportation in rural northern areas. The routes included in this category are:
In 2017, these routes together accounted for only 1% of Via's ridership and revenue.
Unlike Amtrak, which gives every route a specific name, most Via trains are identified only by their route number and destination. The only named Via trains are the Canadian and the Ocean. The five "Adventure Routes" were previously branded as the Skeena, the Saguenay, the Abitibi, the Lake Superior, and the Hudson Bay, respectively, and may still be referred to by these names in local usage.
- 84% Canadian National Railway
- 8% Hudson Bay Railway
- 4% Canadian Pacific Railway
- 3% Via Rail
- 2% Metrolinx (GO Transit)
The Maple Leaf, running between New York City and Toronto via Albany, Buffalo, and Niagara Falls, is jointly managed by Via Rail and Amtrak, the United States' national passenger rail company. The train operates using Amtrak equipment, but on the Canadian side of the border is staffed by Via employees and operated as a typical Via train.
Two other train routes link Canada and the United States: the Adirondack (Montreal-New York) and the Amtrak Cascades (Vancouver-Seattle-Portland). While both of these routes share stations with Via at their Canadian termini, they are fully operated by Amtrak and single-ticket connections to Via trains are not offered.
In addition to Amtrak, Via Rail passengers can book connecting tickets on the following rail services:
- Exo - commuter trains in the Montreal area
- GO Transit - commuter trains in the Toronto area
- Train de Charlevoix - summer tourist train between Quebec City and the Charlevoix region (no shared station in Quebec City; bus shuttle available)
- Union Pearson Express - airport rail link from downtown Toronto to Toronto Pearson International Airport
Via Rail also has connection agreements with several local and intercity bus operators, car-sharing services, and airlines. Passengers who are flying with these airlines can combine their air and rail trips under the same record locator:
- Air North
- Air Transat
- Cathay Pacific
- First Air
- Hainan Airlines
- LOT Polish Airlines
- Qatar Airways
- Royal Jordanian
Via Rail owns 73 locomotives and 426 passenger cars. Examples include the GMD F40PH-2 diesel locomotive and the famed "Park"-class sleeper-dome-lounge cars found on the rear of the Canadian and Jasper – Prince Rupert train.
In 2010, Via's carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent emissions per passenger kilometre were 0.117 kg. For comparison, this is similar to Amtrak or a car with two people, about twice as high as the UK rail average, about four times the average US motorcoach, and about eight times a Finnish electric intercity train or fully loaded fifty-seat coach.
Accidents and incidents
- The most serious Via Rail accident to date occurred on February 8, 1986, when a Via train collided with a CN freight train near Hinton, Alberta, killing 23 people and injuring 71.
- On November 20, 1994, at approximately 18:20 eastern standard time, Via train No. 66 travelling eastward at approximately 96 mph, struck a piece of rail intentionally placed on the track at Mile 242.07 of the CN North America (CN) Kingston Subdivision, in Brighton, Ontario. A fire erupted and the trailing portion of the locomotive and the first two-passenger cars behind the locomotive became engulfed in flames. Forty-six of the 385 passengers were injured, most while exiting the train in life-threatening conditions. 2 local residents were charged and convicted after an investigation by the local police.
- On September 3, 1997, the Canadian as Train 2 from Vancouver to Toronto, travelling eastward at 67 mph, derailed at Mile 7.5 of the Canadian National Wainwright Subdivision, near Biggar, Saskatchewan. Thirteen of nineteen cars and the two locomotives derailed. Seventy-nine of the 198 passengers and crew on board were injured, 1 fatally and 13 seriously. Approximately 600 feet of main track was destroyed. The cause was determined to be an axle bearing failure which was detected but erroneously ignored. Via was heavily criticized for a lack of attention to safety.
- On April 23, 1999, Via Rail Train No. 74 travelling eastward at Mile 46.7 on the Canadian National Chatham Subdivision in Thamesville, Ontario derailed after a switch was left open by a CN worker causing the train to jump the tracks and collide with stationary hoppers on the adjacent track, derailing the locomotive and its 4-passenger cars. The 2 engineers were killed and 77 of the 186 passengers injured, 4 seriously. Approximately 50 m of the main track and 100 m of the yard track were destroyed.
- On April 12, 2001, the Ocean train originating at Halifax destined for Montréal derailed at a manually operated main track switch in Stewiacke, Nova Scotia. A standard Canadian National (CN) switch lock used to secure the switch in correct position had been tampered with. The two locomotives and the first two cars continued on the main track, but the following cars took a diverging route onto an industrial track adjacent to the main track. Nine of the cars derailed and a farm supply building, as well as the industrial track were destroyed. Four occupants of the building escaped without injury prior to impact. There were 132 persons on board the train. Twenty-two persons were transported to hospital in either Truro or Halifax. Nine were seriously injured. A 15-year-old boy pleaded guilty to the charge of mischief endangering life relating to the lock tampering.
- On February 26, 2012, Via Rail train 92 en route from Niagara Falls to Toronto, derailed in Burlington, Ontario, killing all three railroad engineers and injuring 46 (3 seriously). The cause of the derailment is attributed to the excessive speed of the train travelling through a switch from track 2 to track 3.
- 2013 VIA Rail Canada terrorism plot: In April 2013, two men inspired by al-Qaeda were charged with plotting to derail a Via train in the Greater Toronto Area. In 2015, both men were convicted of terrorism-related offenses and sentenced to life imprisonment. One of the two men was mentally unstable and misdiagnosed with schizophrenia.
- On September 18, 2013, a collision occurred between Train 51 and a double-decker OC Transpo bus that failed to stop at a level crossing in Ottawa, Ontario. Six people were killed and 31 injured (11 critically), all of whom were on the bus. The impact resulted in the train derailing approximately 100–200 feet (30–61 m) down the track.
- "Annual Report 2018" (PDF). Via Rail Canada. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
- Nelligan, Tom (1982). Via Rail Canada: The first five years. PJT Publishing. ISBN 0-937658-08-1.
- Jason Fekete (February 29, 2016). "Via Rail seeking federal budget funding for $1.3B passenger car upgrade in Toronto-Montreal corridor". National Post. Retrieved March 2, 2016.
- "Transport 2000 Hotline". Transport2000.ca. 2004-01-30. Archived from the original on 2011-04-20. Retrieved 2011-03-10.
- "Via upgrades to cost $700 million". Archived from the original on June 5, 2004.
- "Via gets hundreds of millions in federal funding". CBC. 2007-10-11. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-11.
- "Backgrounder: New Funding For Via Rail Canada" (PDF). Via Rail. 2007-10-11. Retrieved 2007-10-23.
- Beeby, Dean (2007-10-20). "Via train late? You're not alone". Toronto: The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2007-10-23.
- "Canada's Economic Action Plan". Department of Finance of Canada. 2009-01-27. Retrieved 2011-12-28.
- "Update: Strike Action—VIA Rail Canada cancels all services effective immediately". VIA Rail Canada Inc. Archived from the original on July 25, 2009.
- "Via Rail, CAW reach tentative agreement to avoid strike". Progressive Railroading. 28 June 2010. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- "Via Rail continues its modernization and takes action to better meet customer demand" (Press release). Via Rail. June 27, 2012. Retrieved June 27, 2012.
- "Via train service to Sarnia cut in half". Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
- "Niagara travellers impacted by Via cuts". Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
- "Via Rail blames low ridership for cuts to Kitchener service". Retrieved July 6, 2012.
- "London area hit hard by nationwide Via Rail cuts". Retrieved July 6, 2012.
- "Via Rail cuts means fewer trains to, from Windsor". Retrieved July 6, 2012.
- "Via Rail service between Matapédia, New Carlisle and Gaspé suspended". Retrieved August 23, 2013.
- "Via Rail's $150 passes for unlimited travel sold out". Retrieved June 12, 2018.
- "VIA Rail Selects Siemens Canada to Replace its Quebec-Windsor Corridor Fleet". Retrieved December 19, 2018.
- "VIA Rail places 989 million train order with Siemens". Retrieved December 19, 2018.
- Taylor, Roger (November 9, 2015). "Via looks at expanding Atlantic service". Chronicle Herald. Herald Limited. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- "Summary of the 2017 – 2021 Corporate Plan and 2017 Operating and Capital Budgets" (PDF). VIA Rail Canada. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- "Federal budget approves new fleet of trains for Via Rail, but dedicated tracks still under study". Retrieved June 12, 2018.
- Campbell, Francis (December 8, 2018). "Commuter rail 'far from dead' in Halifax". The Chronicle Herald. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- "Quebec funds Gaspé railway revival". Retrieved June 12, 2018.
- "Seat Assignment". 11 February 2014.
- "Train routes by region | Via Rail". Viarail.ca. Retrieved 2011-03-10.
- Via Rail. "Helpful links for the business traveller". Viarail.ca. Retrieved 2012-01-12.
- "Classes aboard the Jasper-Prince Rupert train | Via Rail". Viarail.ca. Retrieved 2011-03-10.
- "Classes aboard the Montréal-Halifax train (the Ocean) | Via Rail". Viarail.ca. Retrieved 2011-03-10.
- "Classes aboard the Toronto-Vancouver train (the Canadian) | Via Rail". Viarail.ca. Retrieved 2011-03-10.
- "Smoking to be banned on Via train". The Gazette. Montreal, QC. April 15, 1993. pp. A3.
- DeMont, John (August 2002). "All Aboard!". Maclean's. 115 (34): 16.
- Via Rail. "Onboard menus for all trains". Retrieved 2013-02-24.
- "On-Train Entertainment". VIA Rail. Retrieved September 30, 2010.
- "As of November 2008, the Internet Wi-Fi services on VIA Rail Canada trains running between Windsor, Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal, and Quebec City are operated by 21Net". Archived from the original on June 13, 2010..
- "NOMAD awarded contract by VIA Rail and Government of Canada". Nomad Digital Ltd. December 13, 2010. Archived from the original on July 17, 2011.
- Via Rail. "Free Wi-Fi". Viarail.ca. Retrieved 2013-02-24.
- "Baggage Policy" (PDF). VIA Rail Canada. June 2017. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- Via Rail. "Special needs". Retrieved 2013-02-24.
- "Explore Our Train Journeys". VIA Rail Canada. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
- Host, Stephen C. (November 20, 2018). "GEXR leased segment reverts to CN". Railway Age. New York. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
- "Our partners". February 15, 2018.
- Email from Bruno Riendeau, Senior Advisor, Environment, to Alaric Hall, October 20th 2011. Cf. http://docs.wri.org/wri_co2comm_2002_commuting_protected.xls Archived 2016-01-12 at the Wayback Machine, sheet 8, cell C36 (figures from 2002) and http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/programs/environment-ecofreight-about-voluntary-racemissions2007-2-1134.htm Archived 2013-05-17 at the Wayback Machine.
- respectively http://docs.wri.org/wri_co2comm_2002_commuting_protected.xls Archived 2016-01-12 at the Wayback Machine, sheet 8, cell C33, figures from 2002; "Updated Comparison of Energy Use & CO2 Emissions From Different Transportation Modes" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-15. Retrieved 2012-11-23. table 1.1, figures from 2007
- figures from 2008–9.
- figures from 2007.
- Respectively http://lipasto.vtt.fi/yksikkopaastot/henkiloliikennee/raideliikennee/junat_henkiloe.htm, figures for 2007; http://www.lipasto.vtt.fi/yksikkopaastot/henkiloliikennee/tieliikennee/linja-autote/latiee.htm, figures for 2010.
- "Railway Investigation Report R94T0357". Transportation Safety Board of Canada.
- "Railway Investigation Report R97H0009". Transportation Safety Board of Canada.
- Canada, Government of Canada, Transportation Safety Board of. "Railway Investigation Report R99H0007".
- "Railway Investigation Report R01M0024". Transportation Safety Board of Canada.
- "Teen faces victims of N.S. train wreck". CBC. CBC News.
- Blackwell, Tom (22 April 2013). "Canadian terrorist plot to attack Via train thwarted, 2 arrested: RCMP". National Post.
- Diana Mehta, Men convicted in Via terror plot handed life sentences, Canadian Press (September 23, 2016).
- Richard Warnica, Legal battle over convicted terrorist Chiheb Esseghaier’s sanity set as lawyers appointed for appeal, National Post (January 13, 2016).
- Richard Warnica, Would-be terrorist Chiheb Esseghaier is clearly insane, but should that even matter in court?, National Post (August 28, 2015).
- Commisso, Christina; Puzic, Sonja (18 September 2013). "Via train and city bus crash in Ottawa, at least 6 dead, 30 injured". CTV News. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- Allen, Tom (2001). Rolling Home: A Cross-Canada Railroad Memoir. Toronto: Penguin. ISBN 0-670-88473-1.
- Greenlaw, Christopher C. N. (2007). VIA Rail. Saint Paul, MN: MBI. ISBN 9780760325292. OCLC 71286639.
- Pindell, Terry (1992). Last train to Toronto: a Canadian rail odyssey. 115 West 18th Street, New York, New York 10011: Henry Holt and Company, Inc. ISBN 0-8050-1574-4.
- Hanus, Chris & Shaske, John (2009). Canada By Train: The Complete Via Rail Travel Guide ISBN 978-0-9730897-5-2
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