Voiced bilabial affricate

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Voiced bilabial affricate

A voiced bilabial affricate ([b͡β] in IPA) is a rare affricate consonant that is initiated as a bilabial stop [b] and released as a voiced bilabial fricative [β]. It has not been reported to occur phonemically in any language.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced bilabial affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is bilabial, which means it is articulated with both lips.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English Broad Cockney[1] rub [ˈɹ̠ɐˑb͡β] 'rub' Sporadic allophone of /b/.[2] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[3] Rare allophone of /b/.[3] See English phonology
Scouse[4] [ˈɹ̠ʊˑb͡β] Possible syllable-initial and word-final allophone of /b/.[4] See English phonology
Shipibo[5] boko [ˈb͡βo̽ko̽] 'small intestine' Possible realization of /β/. See Shipibo phonology.[5]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  • Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan (ed.), Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092
  • Valenzuela, Pilar M.; Márquez Pinedo, Luis; Maddieson, Ian (2001), "Shipibo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 31 (2): 281–285, doi:10.1017/S0025100301002109
  • Wells, John C. (1982). "Accents of English 2: The British Isles". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24224-X.

External links[edit]