Voiceless uvular trill

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Voiceless uvular trill
ʀ̥
IPA Number123 402A
Encoding
X-SAMPAR\_0
Audio sample

The voiceless uvular trill is less common than its voiced counterpart.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless uvular trill:

  • Its manner of articulation is trill, which means it is produced by directing air over an articulator so that it vibrates.
  • Its place of articulation is uvular, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the uvula.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans[1] goed [ʀ̥ut] 'good' Possible word-initial allophone of /χ/. Some speakers realize it as velar [x].[1] See Afrikaans phonology
Baïnounk Gubëeher Some speakers[2] [example needed] Word-final allophone of /r/.
Dutch Belgian[3] door [doːʀ̥] 'through' Allophone of /r/ before voiceless consonants and word-finally for speakers with an uvular /r/.[3] Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology
French Belgian[4] triste [t̪ʀ̥is̪t̪œ] 'sad' Allophone of /r/ after voiceless consonants; can be a fricative [χ] instead.[4] See French phonology
German Standard[5] treten [ˈtʀ̥eːtn̩] 'to step' Possible allophone of /r/ after voiceless consonants for speakers that realize /r/ as a uvular trill [ʀ].[5] See Standard German phonology
Chemnitz dialect[6] Rock [ʀ̥ɔkʰ] 'skirt' In free variation with [ʁ̞], [ʁ], [χ] and [q]. Doesn't occur in the coda.[6]
Limburgish Hasselt dialect[7] geer [ɣeːʀ̥] 'odour' Possible word-final allophone of /r/; may be alveolar [] instead.[8]
Spanish Ponce dialect[9] perro [ˈpe̞ʀ̥o̞] 'dog' This and [χ] are the primary realizations of /r/ in this dialect.[9] See Spanish phonology

Voiceless uvular fricative trill[edit]

Voiceless uvular fricative trill
ʀ̝̊
χ͡ʀ̥
IPA Number123 402A 429
Encoding
X-SAMPAR\_0_r

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless uvular fricative trill:

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative trill, which means it is a non-sibilant fricative and a trill pronounced simultaneously.
  • Its place of articulation is uvular, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the uvula.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic Modern Standard[10] خضراء [x͡ʀ̥adˤraːʔ] 'green (f)' Voiceless velar fricative accompanied by a uvular trill.[10] Also reported to be simply a fricative (velar, post-velar, uvular, depending on the dialect).[11] See Arabic phonology
Dutch Standard Northern[12] acht [ɑʀ̝̊˖t] 'eight' Post-velar;[12] also described as a fricative, either post-velar [] or uvular [χ].[13] See Dutch phonology
Belgian[14][15] brood [bʀ̝̊oːt] 'bread' Voiced when following a vowel.[16] Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology
English Scouse[17] clock [kl̥ɒʀ̝̊] 'clock' Possible word-final realization of /k/.[17]
Hebrew[18] אוכל [ʔo̞χ͡ʀ̥e̞l] 'food' May be simply a fricative instead.[18] See Modern Hebrew phonology
Limburgish Some dialects[19][20][21] waor [β̞ɒ̝ːʀ̝̊] 'was' Allophone of /r/ that has been variously described as occurring in the syllable coda[19][20] and word-final.[21] May be only partially devoiced.[19][20] The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Spanish Madrid[22] jazmín [x͡ʀ̥äðˈmĩn] 'jasmine' Voiceless velar fricative accompanied by a uvular trill.[22] Corresponds to [x ~ χ] in standard European Spanish. See Spanish phonology
Wolof[23] [example needed] Usually transcribed in IPA with ⟨x⟩ or ⟨χ⟩.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "John Wells's phonetic blog: velar or uvular?". 5 December 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
  2. ^ Cobbinah (2013), p. 166.
  3. ^ a b Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  4. ^ a b Demolin (2001), pp. 65, 67-68, 70-71.
  5. ^ a b Krech et al. (2009), p. 86.
  6. ^ a b Khan & Weise (2013), p. 235.
  7. ^ Peters (2006).
  8. ^ While Peters (2006) does not state that explicitly, he uses the symbol ⟨⟩ for many instances of the word-final /r/.
  9. ^ a b "ProQuest Document View - The Spanish of Ponce, Puerto Rico: A phonetic, phonological, and intonational analysis".
  10. ^ a b Thelwall & Sa'Addedin (1999), pp. 51, 53.
  11. ^ Watson (2002), pp. 17, 19-20, 35-36, 38.
  12. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003:191). The source says that it is a fricative with a "very energetic articulation with considerable scrapiness", i.e. a trill fricative.
  13. ^ Gussenhoven (1999), p. 74.
  14. ^ Tops (2009), pp. 25, 30-32, 63, 80-88, 97-100, 105, 118, 124-127, 134-135, 137-138, 140-141.
  15. ^ Verhoeven (1994:?), cited in Tops (2009:22, 83)
  16. ^ Tops (2009), p. 83.
  17. ^ a b Wells (1982), pp. 372–373.
  18. ^ a b Laufer (1999), p. 98.
  19. ^ a b c Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 108.
  20. ^ a b c Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 156.
  21. ^ a b Verhoeven (2007), p. 220.
  22. ^ a b "Castilian Spanish - Madrid by Klaus Kohler".
  23. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 167.

References[edit]