Volkssozialistische Bewegung Deutschlands/Partei der Arbeit
Founded in 1971 and banned in 1982, it used a stylized eagle on a shield bearing a stylized Celtic cross and the Wolfsangel as its party emblems. At a time when the far-right in Germany was distancing itself from mainstream Nazism, the VSBD/PdA took the lead by supporting Strasserism, the more socialist-leaning version of Nazism. The Junge Front (Young Front), a youth movement attached to the party, was also organised.
Despite its name, the movement was not a registered party, which allowed the German Minister of the Interior to ban it in 1982 as an organization opposing the constitution. Usage of the stylized Celtic cross was outlawed as well unless used in an innocuous context. Soon afterwards, many of its former members founded the Nationalist Front, which can be seen as a successor to the VSBD/PdA.
- C.T. Husbands, 'Militant Neo-Nazism in the Federal Republic of Germany' in L. Cheles, R. Ferguson & M. Vaughan, Neo-Fascism in Europe, 1992, pp. 99–100.
- P. Davies & D. Lynch, The Routledge Companion to Fascism and the Far Right, London: Routledge, 2002. p. 300.
- Isoliertes Verwenden eines stilisierten Keltenkreuzes grundsätzlich strafbar, press release of the Bundesgerichtshof, 14 November 2008. (in German).
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