In Oromo culture, Waaq or Waaqo denotes the single god of the early monotheistic faith believed to have been adhered to by Cushitic groups. This belief system still somewhat exists in some Oromo societies.
With regard to the Muslim Somalis, since no indigenous spiritual group has survived, no ancient deities and spirits are known. Early beliefs can therefore only be hypothesized from certain customs and words, such as waaq (sky-god), an archaic Somali term for god.
Also in Somalia there are many clans and places called Waaq; such as Ceel Waaq, which mean "the well of God" and Caabud Waaq, which mean "where God is worshiped". Some Somalis of the Darod clans still have Waaq names like the Jid Waaq clan, the Ogaden Tagaal Waaq sub-clan and the Majeerteen Siwaaqroon sub-clan. Also there are many Somali language uses of Waaq name, like BarWaaqo, which mean "when the land is filled with grass and water".
- Mohamed Diriye Abdullahi, Culture and Customs of Somalia, (Greenwood Publishing Group: 2001), p.65.
- Saints and Somalis: Popular Islam in a Clan-based Society, I.M Lewis, p.137
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