Japanese cities subdivided into wards. Since this map was made the following additional cities have been divided into wards: Hamamatsu (between Nagoya and Shizuoka), Okayama (between Hiroshima and Kobe), Sapporo and Kumamoto (beyond map scope).
Wards are local entities directly controlled by the municipal government. They handle administrative functions such as koseki registration, health insurance, and property taxation. Many wards have affiliated residents' organizations for a number of tasks, although these do not have any legal authority.