Women and religion

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The study of women and religion typically examines the role of women within particular religious faiths, and religious doctrines relating to gender, gender roles, and particular women in religious history. Most religions elevate the status of men over women, have stricter sanctions against women, and require them to be submissive. While there has been progress towards equality, religions overall still lag the rest of society in addressing gender issues. There are fundamentalists within every religion who actively resist change. There is often a dualism within religion which exalts women on the one hand, while demanding more rigorous displays of devotion on the other. This leads some feminists to see religion as the last barrier for female emancipation.

Abrahamic religions[edit]

Bahá'í Faith[edit]

Christianity[edit]

Christian women in Maracaibo, Venezuela.

Some critics believe Christianity has set a mold for women to adhere to and is one that limits a woman’s freedom in the church. However, according to Christian theology, both men and women are created in the image and likeness of God, implying neither to be inferior to the next, but equal in dignity. However, the genders differ in roles, according to Christian tradition. As an off-shoot of Judaism, Christianity recognizes and appreciates the integral role of the matriarchs in salvation history: Sarah, the wife of Abraham; Rebecca, the mother of Esau and Jacob; Leah and Rachel, the wives of Jacob; Miriam, the sister of Moses. Theyas[1] "[2] Christianity recognizes Mary, the mother of Jesus, to be the most esteemed of all the women in the Christian New Testament. Mary assumes a lofty office, as she is the mother of the Son of God. “And the angel said unto her: “Hail, Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women“(Douay-Rhiems Luke 1:28). In certain Christian traditions (e.g. Eastern Orthodoxy, Roman Catholicism, and Anglicanism) Mary is integral to Christian spirituality, and is venerated with liturgical feasts, prayers, hymns, art, and other expressions of faith.

Historically, Christianity has been impacted by women (e.g. St. Hildegard von Bingen, St. Catherine of Siena, Mother Teresa of Calcutta, etc.). Women have contributed such qualities as virgins, mothers, and wives to the progression and betterment of Christianity, and still continue to do so. Although, in some denominations it is considered wrong to ordain woman as priests or ministers, and elevate them to ecclesiastical offices, women in the Roman Catholic and Anglican faiths can dedicate their lives to obedience, chastity, and poverty as nuns, and are also given leadership positions as abbesses and as lay officers. [3][4] Colossians and Peter, In the texts of the New Testament, the protagonist, Jesus of Nazarerth, revolutionizes cultural attitudes towards women, and openly defends women, converses with them, attends to them in need, etc. One of the most significant instances of Jesus’ interaction with women is at the revelation of the Resurrection to the women mourning at the tomb of Christ. The women are directed to announce the miracle to the Apostles, the disciples of Christ.

Judaism[edit]

The role of women in Judaism is determined by the Hebrew Bible, the Oral Law (the corpus of rabbinic literature, including the Talmud), by custom, and by non-religious cultural factors. Although the Hebrew Bible and rabbinic literature mention various female role models, religious law treats women differently in various circumstances.[5] In historical Jewish texts, all people were seen equal under the highest level: God. The Hebrew bible states that “man” was made both “male and female”,[6] originally had a dual gender for God, but this disappeared and God became referred to as He and Him. In Judaism, God has never been exclusively viewed as male or masculine, but rather, God has both masculine and feminine qualities.[7] Scriptures and ancient texts refer God as “Him” because there is no neutral gender in the Hebrew language.

Family is strongly emphasized in Judaism. Gender has a bearing on familial lines: in traditional Judaism, Jewishness is passed down through the mother, though the status of belonging to one of the three groups within Judaism (kohen, levite, or Israel) is inherited through the father. In the Hebrew Scriptures the father's name is used to identify sons and daughters, e.g., "Dinah, daughter of Jacob".[8] Responsibilities were not taken lightly with regards to the family. The wife and mother in Hebrew, is called "akeret habayit," which in English translation means "mainstay of the house." In traditional and Orthodox Judaism the aketet habayit, or woman of the house, tends to the family and household duties.[9]

Women have been highly regarded within the Jewish community because they are capable of a great degree of "binah" (institution, understanding, intelligence). The term, “women of valor,” describes the ideal characteristics of a Jewish woman. Traditionally, she is one who devoted all her energies towards the “physical and spiritual well-being of her family.” [10] Her continuous care enabled her husband and children to flourish, her personal reward being their successes.[11] However, that role has been reshaped through time. The “women of valor’s” impact expanded beyond the household and into the community. Volunteer work has allowed women to sharpen leadership and organizational skills.[10] While it may seem that women only have had influence in smaller communities, Jewish women have eventually established enough authority to emerge as public figures. In 1972, Sally Priesand, became the first woman ordained as a rabbi, in the Reform denomination.[12] Women in the Reform, Conservative, Reconstructionist, and Renewal denominations are now able to lead worship services and read from the Torah and give drashes (sermons) just as men do, often contributing a different perspective.[13]

The role of women in traditional Judaism has been grossly misrepresented and misunderstood. The position of women is not nearly as lowly as many modern people think; in fact, the position of women in halakhah (Jewish Law) dating back as far as the biblical period is in some ways better than the position of women under American civil law as recently as a century ago.

Islam[edit]

Islam is a monotheistic religion that was founded in the early seventh century by the prophet, Muhammad. The notion of a good life for a Muslim person is defined in Islam’s sacred text, the Quran, as well as the Hadith which are the direct teachings of Muhammad. Although these sources covered a lot, there were still some situations that were left to interpretation. Thus, Islamic scholars formed a consensus around a set of secondary sources, the most notable being the ijma, qiyas, ijtihad and fatwas. It is important to recognize that the Quran is not a static source with a fixed meaning but a dynamic, versatile one.[14]

Although the introduction of Islamic principles was a step in the right direction, men kept the dominant position and women were required to be obedient to their husbands, fathers, and sons. This was less due to the teachings of the religion than to the cultural norms of the era in which it arose. Before Islam became so widespread, people of the Middle East lived in households in which women were seen as the property of their husbands and were only meant to perform household tasks, ultimately dehumanizing them.[15]

Islam also gave some recognition to women’s rights by regarding men and women as equals in their ability to carry out the wishes of Allah and the teachings of Muhammad.[16] The three main things which sharia law introduced were a women’s rights to marriage, inheritance, and divorce. It also limited the oppressive privileges of men by restricting polygamy, limiting men to marrying a maximum of four women only, and requiring the husband to take care of each wife equally and properly.[17] Marrying more than four wives is the right only of certain men in powerful positions. Muhammad himself had several wives, marrying some who were widows to give them a home and protection.

Muslims must observe the five pillars of Islam: praying five times a day, fasting during the month of Ramadan, making a pilgrimage to Mecca, donating to charity, and accepting Allah as the only God and Muhammad as Allah's prophet. Women have restrictions on praying in public, given instead separate private spaces. Also women are not permitted to pray during menstruation as they are not considered clean. If women are pregnant or nursing during the month of Ramadan, they do not need to keep the sunup to sundown daily fasts .[15] Segregation of men and women in Islamic centres gives Muslim women the right to work independently and not under men. Islam was the first religion ever to give females some equal rights in the Quran.

Due to their isolation, it became the responsibility of the ummah, or Muslim community, to pass down the customs and traditions that mold a Muslim women's life. This guidance, sharia, and Islamic scripture outlined the structure for her education, employment opportunities, rights to inheritance, dress, public appearance, domestic 'duties', age of marriage, freedom to consent to marriage, marriage contract, mahr, permissibility of birth control, divorce, sex outside or before marriage, ability to receive justice in case of sex crimes, property rights independent of her husband, and when salat (prayers) are mandatory for her.[18]


East Asian religions[edit]

Taoism[edit]

The roles of women in Taoism, have differed from the traditional patriarchy over women in ancient and imperial China. Chinese women had special importance in some Taoist schools that recognized their transcendental abilities to communicate with deities, who frequently granted women with revealed texts and scriptures. Women first came to prominence in the Highest Clarity School, which was founded in the 4th century by a woman, Wei Huacun.

Indian religions[edit]

Buddhism[edit]

A high-ranking Bhikkhuni in the Chinese Buddhist tradition during an alms round.

Buddhism can be considered to be revolutionary within the social and political realms of ancient India in regards to the role of women. During this time period, members of the highest Hindu caste, called Brahmins, did not allow women to have any involvement with religious rites or sacred texts of the Vedas.[19] The Laws of Manu, state that “By a girl, by a young woman, or even an aged one, nothing must be done independently, even in her own house. In childhood a female must be subject to her own father, in youth to her husband, when her lord is dead to her sons; a woman must never be independent” (V, 147-46, 155).[20] Buddhism can be attributed as revolutionary due to the fact that Gautama Buddha admitted women into the monastic order, during a time when monastic communities were dominated by males in India.[21]

Additionally, one of the main schools of tradition that originated from the early development of Buddhism, called Theravāda Buddhism, expresses the assumption that “all men and women, regardless of their caste, origins, or status, have equal spiritual worth.”[19] Because Buddhism can be described as a religious and philosophical ideology that does not have an explicit “Creator” there is no implied “sacredness” in relation to one’s human form, which means that the practice itself is not bound to the ideas of gender, reproduction, and sexuality.[22]

However, it is argued that Buddhist traditions still have underlying issues pertaining to gender roles. While Buddhist ideologies may be considered a revolutionary step forward in the status of women, many still consider the tradition to be subject to the social and political context of undermining gender issues during its upbringing, and even up to this day. The progression of gender issues, especially between gender and authority, can be seen during the time period of Hinayana Buddhism, when the Buddhist order underwent major reforms of splitting into about 20 different schools. During this time Buddhist narratives and beliefs arose limiting the status of women’s roles within the Buddhist communities, asserting that women could not reach enlightenment, or Buddhahood.[23] This also meant that women would not attain positions of leadership because of the fact that they could not reach enlightenment, unless they “gain good karma and are reborn as men beforehand.”[24]

Alternatively, Khandro Rinpoche, a female lama in Tibetan Buddhism, shows a more optimistic view in regards to women in Buddhism:

When there is a talk about women and Buddhism, I have noticed that people often regard the topic as something new and different. They believe that women in Buddhism has become an important topic because we live in modern times and so many women are practicing the Dharma now. However, this is not the case. The female sangha has been here for centuries. We are not bringing something new into a 2,500-year-old tradition. The roots are there, and we are simply re-energizing them.[25]

In a YouTube interview on why there are so few female teachers in the Buddhist communities, Rinpoche goes on to say that:

It is because of a lack of education. It was a very patriarchal society back in the East. Wherever Buddhism grew, these societies were very patriarchal. It limits the opportunity women have to study and be independent – and you have to study and be independent to manifest any kind of realization or understanding…fortunately, that seems to be changing. I really think that opportunities for education have now really increased for women – they are becoming very competitive and learned, and things are going to change.[26]

Rinpoche states that while the underlying nature of the patriarchal system that still exists today creates more obstacles and limitations for women in Buddhism, she believes that there is a changing dynamic and optimistic future for women within the Buddhist community.[26]

Hinduism[edit]

Hindu Bride

In Hinduism, women are portrayed as equal or even greater than men. For instance, Kali Ma (Dark Mother) "is the Hindu goddess of creation, preservation, and goddess of destruction." Her power included the origin of all creation's life, as well as the end of life.[27] Due to her control over life and death, Kali was seen as a goddess who should be loved as well as feared. This leads to a higher status for the woman than the man, because everyone has to respect her in order to have a smooth life and live longer. Another important female figure is Shakti, a goddess that embodies the energy of the universe, "often appearing to destroy demonic forces and restore balance".[28] Because Shakti is a universal force, she embodies all the gods in Hinduism and is worshiped as the "mother goddess".

While Hinduism portrays women as figures who play an important role in understanding how the world works, women in Hindu society have been marginalized and their importance has been diminished, as a result of "girls being made to feel lesser and not as important as boys".[29] This has created a shift in power between men and women to the point where a woman is seen as, "preordained to be ruled by the male and subjected to all kinds of atrocities, for these are the standards of being an ideal Hindu woman".[30] Due to this change in perception, Hinduism is now seen as a Partiarchal religion that teaches sexism and inequality, when in actuality it is the people in Hindu society's perception that is sexist rather than the religion itself. However, this view of women being treated as property is slowly beginning to change, as Hindu women are pushing for more equality and a change in the perception of women.


Jainism[edit]

Jainism is an ancient Indian religion founded around the sixth century BCE.[31] Janism is a nontheistic religion currently practiced in multiple countries, due to Jain settlers who immigrated there (mainly United Kingdom, United States, Canada and some African countries). Jainism is inclusive of women. One of the cornerstones of the religion is the “fourfold" sangha which describes the Jainism community, which is made up of monks, nuns, laymen and laywomen.

The religious status of women is a very important aspect of the history of the religion and one of the most critical issues between the oldest religious divisions of the religion, Svetambar and Digambar. The major distinction between these two divisions is the position of women in their societies. Digambar Jains believe that women are not capable of being enlightened, while Svetambar Jains have opposite beliefs, believing that women are able to become renouncers, are capable of enlightenment and can become religious role models. Women, especially among Svetambar Jains, are believed to be deceitful, and that this characteristic is the main foundation of their character, to the extent that rebirth as a woman is a consequence of being deceitful in a former life. One of their sacred texts states:

“As the result of manifesting deception, a man in this world becomes a woman. As a woman, if her heart is pure, she becomes a man in this world.”[32]

Women are important in Jainism, playing a major role in its structure (nuns and laywomen), making up two of the four categories within the community and participating in the continuation and spread of the religion. The Jain social structure is patriarchal, with men holding primary leadership roles in the society. Except for modern times, Jain women have been unable to speak for themselves or to tell their stories. Almost all the texts regarding Jain women's roles and experiences have been written by monks, who are males. The pan-Indian belief that women are “weak-minded”, “deceptive”, “fickle”, “treacherous” and “impure” are beliefs common to Jainism and mentioned various times in their sacred and later texts.[32]

Jain women do have significant roles, however, especially in the performance of rituals. Jain women are nuns and laywomen in this society. In the fourfold community, the mendicants (monks and nuns) center their lives around asceticism. There are stricter rules/restrictions on nuns in their daily routine and rituals compared to those for monks. And nuns are dependent and subordinate to monks. More years are needed by nuns to gain higher positions in comparison to monks. Although nuns may have seniority in tenure they may be subservient to monks with fewer years in their religious life.

The laity, which consists of laymen and laywomen, are very important to Jainism for its survival and economic foundation. The laity support the mendicant orders, following rules which create the groundwork of the religion. For example, the doctrine of Jainism places great emphasis on dietary practices. Laywomen play a very important role in ensuring that the rules surrounding dietary practices are followed, as their first and major responsibility is the preparation of meals.

Sikhism[edit]

Volunteers preparing langar at the Golden Temple in Amritsar, India.

According to Sikhism, men and women are two sides of the same coin. There is a system of inter-relation and inter-dependence where man is born of woman, and woman is born of man's seed. According to Sikhism a man can not feel secure and complete during his life without a woman, and a man's success is related to the love and support of the woman who shares her life with him, and vice versa.[33] The founder of Sikhism, Guru Nanak, reportedly said in 1499 that "It is a woman who keeps the race going" and that we should not "consider woman cursed and condemned, when from woman are born leaders and rulers."

Sikhs have had an obligation to treat women as equals, and gender discrimination in Sikh society has not been allowed. However, gender equality has been difficult to achieve.

At the time of the Gurus women were considered very low in society. Both Hindus and Muslims regarded women as inferior and a man's property. Women were treated as mere property whose only value was as a servant or for entertainment. They were considered seducers and distractions from man's spiritual path. Men were allowed polygamy but widows were not allowed to remarry; instead they were encouraged to burn themselves on their husbands funeral pyre (suttee). Child marriage and female infanticide were prevalent and purdah (veils) were popular for women. Women were also not allowed to inherit any property. Many Hindu women were captured and sold as slaves in foreign Islamic countries.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "What Does the Bible Say About Virtuous Woman?". www.openbible.info. Retrieved 2016-10-20.
  2. ^ "Bible Gateway passage: 1 Corinthians 11:3 - New International Version". Bible Gateway. Retrieved 2018-04-13.
  3. ^ "Bible Gateway passage: Genesis 2:18 - New International Version". Bible Gateway. Retrieved 2018-04-13.
  4. ^ Template:Cite society
  5. ^ "Judaism 101: The Role of Women". www.jewfaq.org. Retrieved 2016-02-09.
  6. ^ Genesis. The Hebrew Bible. London: Cassell.
  7. ^ Coogan, Michael (2011). God and sex: What the Bible really says. Twelve. p. 175.
  8. ^ "The Role of Women".
  9. ^ "What is the Role of the Woman in Judaism?". www.chabad.org. Retrieved 2016-10-20.
  10. ^ a b Wenger, Beth (1989). "Jewish Women and Voluntarism: Beyond the Myth of Enablers". American Jewish History. 79 (1): 16–36. JSTOR 23884567.
  11. ^ Krieger, Aliza (2010). "The Role of Judaism in Family Relationships". Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development. 38 (3): 154–165. doi:10.1002/j.2161-1912.2010.tb00123.x.
  12. ^ "Women Rabbis". Jewish Women's Archives.
  13. ^ Zucker, David. "Women Rabbis: A Novel Idea".
  14. ^ Motahari, Ayatollah Morteza. "Jurisprudence and its principles." New York: Tahrike Tarsile Quran (1980).
  15. ^ a b "Women." In The Islamic World: Past and Present. Ed. John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Apr 11, 2018. <http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t243/e370>.
  16. ^ Smith, Jane I. "Women in Islam: Equity, Equality, and the Search for the Natural Order." Journal of the American Academy of Religion, vol. 47, no. 4, Dec. 1979, pp. 517-537. EBSCOhost, electra.lmu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rfh&AN=ATLA0000775406&site=eds-live&scope=site.
  17. ^ Khel, Muhammad Nazeer Kaka. "THE STATUS OF WOMEN IN ISLAM."
  18. ^ Dunn, S. & Kellison, R. B. "At the Intersection of Scripture and Law: Qur'an 4:34 and Violence against Women." Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion, vol. 26 no. 2, 2010, pp. 11-36. Project MUSE, muse.jhu.edu/article/394785.
  19. ^ a b Halkias, Georgios (2013). A Companion to Buddhist Philosophy. UK: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 494. doi:10.1002/9781118324004. ISBN 9781118324004.
  20. ^ Buhler, George. "Laws of Manu". Internet Sacred Texts Archive.
  21. ^ Sirimanne, Chand (November 2016). "Buddhism and Women - Dhamma has no Gender". Journal of International Women's Studies. 18: 275.
  22. ^ Gross, Rita (1993). Buddhism After Patriarchy: A Feminist History, Analysis, and Reconstruction of Buddhism. New York: State University of New York Press. p. 24.
  23. ^ Yuichi, Kajiyama (1982). "Women in Buddhism". The Eastern Buddhist. 15 (2): 54. JSTOR 44361658.
  24. ^ "Can Women Become Leaders in the Buddhist Tradition?". berkleycenter.georgetown.edu. Retrieved 2018-04-12.
  25. ^ Chodron, Thubten (1999-01-01). Blossoms of the Dharma: Living as a Buddhist Nun. North Atlantic Books. ISBN 9781556433252.
  26. ^ a b Study Buddhism (2017-11-09), Khandro Rinpoche – Why Are There So Few Female Teachers?, retrieved 2018-04-12
  27. ^ "Kali Ma | Hindu Goddess". The Mystica. 2018-02-04. Retrieved 2018-04-12.
  28. ^ "Shakti: A Universal Force". The Chopra Center. 2016-05-01. Retrieved 2018-04-12.
  29. ^ Hindu, The White (2014-06-05). "The Truth About Women and Hinduism". The White Hindu. Retrieved 2018-04-12.
  30. ^ Basharat, Tahira (July–December 2009). "The Contemporary Hindu Women of India: An Overview" (PDF). A Research Journal of South Asian Studies. 24: 244.
  31. ^ Sharma, Arvind (1994). Religion and women. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0791416895. OCLC 27109180.
  32. ^ a b Sharma, Arvind, ed. (2002). Women in Indian religions. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195646347. OCLC 51163290.
  33. ^ "Sri Guru Granth Sahib – A brief history | Islam Ahmadiyya". www.alislam.org. Retrieved 2016-02-09.

Further reading[edit]

Position of Women in Buddhism: Spiritual and Cultural Activities

External links[edit]