Women in warfare (1500–1699)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Women in early modern warfare)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Active warfare throughout history has mainly been a matter for men, but women have also played a role, often a leading one. While women rulers conducting warfare was common, women who participated in active warfare were rare. The following list of prominent women in war and their exploits from about 1500 AD up to about 1700 AD.

Only women active in direct warfare, such as warriors, spies, and women who actively led armies are included in this list.

For women in warfare in what is now the United States during this time period, see Timeline of women in war in the United States, Pre-1945.

Timeline of women in warfare from 1500–1699[edit]

1500–1550[edit]

1550–1599[edit]

1600–1650[edit]

1650–1699[edit]

  • Roughly mid to late 1600s: Pashtun poet Nazo Tokhi defends a fortress.[93]
  • 1652: Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans, Duchess of Montpensier, fires the cannons against the army of Turenne during the Fronde.[94]
  • 1652–1653: Anna Jans serves in the Dutch Navy as a man during the war against England.[95]
  • 1652–1653: Johanna/Jannetje Pieters serves in the Dutch Navy as a man, Jan Pietersse, during the war against England.[96]
  • 1652–1653: Adriana La Noy serves as sailor dressed as a man in the Dutch Navy.[97]
  • 1653: Aagt de Tamboer serves in the Dutch navy dressed as a man.[40]
  • 1653: Anna Alders serves in the Dutch navy dressed as a man.[40]
  • 1653: The Princess of Moldavia, Doamna Ecaterina Cercheza, defends the city of Suceava toward the Ottoman siege.[98]
  • 1659: Anne Holck leads the defense of the Danish island of Langeland after the death of her spouse against the Swedes during the Dano-Swedish War (1658–1660).[99]
  • 1659–1665: Willemtge Gerrits serves in the Dutch Marine as a man.[100]
  • 1663: Annetje Barents serves in the Dutch navy dressed as a man under the name Klaas Barents.[40]
  • 1665: Jacoba Jacobs serves in the Dutch Marine as Jacob Jacobs.[101]
  • 1666: Hendrick Albertsz in the Dutch navy is discovered to have been a female dressed as a male.[40]
  • 1667: Engeltje Dirx serves in the Dutch army dressed as a man.[40]
  • 1667: Jacoba Jacobs serves in the Dutch navy dressed as a man.[40]
  • 1670: Alena Arzamasskaia, a Russian female ataman rebel, commanded a detachment of about 600 men and participated in the capture of Temnikov while disguised as a man.[102][103]
  • 1672: Annetje Pieters serves in the Dutch navy dressed as a man; the same year, another unnamed female is discovered to have done the same.[40]
  • 1672: Margaretha Sandra, as well as several other women, participate in the defence of the Dutch city of Aardenburg against the French.[43]
  • 1673: Elisabeth Someruell is reputed to have served as Tobias Morello in the Spanish army.[40]
  • 1673: Isabella Clara Gelvinck serves in the Dutch army dressed as a male.[40]
  • 1673: An unnamed female serves in the Dutch army dressed as a male.[40]
  • 1674: An unnamed female serves in the Dutch army dressed as a male.[40]
  • 1674: Francijntje van Lint serves in the Dutch army dressed as a male.[40]
  • 1675: An unnamed female serves in the Dutch army dressed as a male.[40]
  • 1675: An unnamed female serves in the Dutch navy dressed as a male.[40]
  • 1676: Kong Sizhen succeeds her spouse as Chinese Imperial military commander of Guanxi during the rebellion of Wu Sangui.[104]
  • 1676–1691: Geneviève Prémoy serves in the French army dressed as a male.[105]
  • 1677–1689: Reign of Keladi Chennamma. During her reign of 12 years, she repelled the advances of the Mughal Army led by the infamous Aurangzeb from her military base in the kingdom of Keladi located in Sagara, Karnataka India.[106][107]
  • 1677: An unnamed female serves in the Dutch navy dressed as a male.[40]
  • 1679: Lisbetha Olsdotter is put on trial for having served in the Swedish army under the name Mats Ersson.[77]
  • 1684: Catharina Rosenbrock serves in the Dutch army as well as the navy dressed as a male.[40]
  • 1685–1688: Ilona Zrínyi defends the Palanok Castle in Munkács against the Habsburg forces.[108]
  • 1688: Maria Jacoba de Turenne serves in the Dutch army dressed as a man[109]
  • 1690s: Kit Cavanagh disguises herself as a man in order to fight as a dragoon.[110]
  • 1690: Anne Chamberlyne, a female tar who disguised herself as man, fights the French at Beachy Head.[111]
  • 1691: Anna Isabella Gonzaga, Duchess of Mantua, defends Mantua against the Spanish as regent during the absence of her spouse.[112]
  • 1691–1696: Marie Magdelaine Mouron serves in the French army dressed as a male.[84]
  • 1694: An unnamed female serves in the Dutch navy dressed as a male.[40]
  • 1696: Joonas Dirckse in the Dutch navy is discovered to be a female dressed as a male.[40]
  • 1696: Mongolian Queen Anu dies saving her husband at the Battle of Zuunmod.[113]
  • Late 17th century: A Finnish female serves in the French, English and Danish army dressed as a male.[40]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Steinem, Gloria; Chesler, Phyllis; Feitler, Bea (1972). Wonder Woman. Hole, Rinehart and Winston and Warner Books. ISBN 0-03-005376-5.
  2. ^ Introduction to the History of African Civilization: Precolonial Africa By C. Magbaily Fyle, p.74
  3. ^ Lonely Planet India By Lonely Planet, Abigail Blasi, Michael Benanav, Lindsay Brown, Mark Elliott, Paul Harding, Anna Kaminski, Anirban Mahapatra, Bradley Mayhew, John Noble
  4. ^ Petrillo, Valerie. A Kid's Guide to Asian American History: More Than 70 Activities. Chicago Review Press. p. 162. ISBN 1-55652-634-2.
  5. ^ Rait, Satwant Kaur (2005). Sikh Women in England: Their Religious and Cultural Beliefs and Social Practices. Trentham Books. p. 47. ISBN 1-85856-353-4.
  6. ^ Holm, Jean; John Bowker (1994). Women in Religion. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 151. ISBN 0-8264-5304-X.
  7. ^ Historical Dictionary of Nigeria By Toyin Falola, Ann Genova, p.160
  8. ^ a b Dansk Kvindebiografisk Leksikon
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-07-10. Retrieved 2010-10-14.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ Hockman: Ingeborg Aakentytär Tott, Hämeen linnan valtijatar. Linnassa ja sen liepeillä, Elämää Hämeen linnassa [Ingeborg Aakentytär Tott, Mistress of Häme Castle. Castle and its surroundings. Life in Häme Castle] Hämeenlinna 1990, pp. 27-48.
  11. ^ Jac Geurts, en, in: Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland
  12. ^ Suomen kansallisbiografia (National Biography of Finland)
  13. ^ Letters & Papers vol. 1 (1920), no. 2299: Catherine was issued with banners at Richmond on 8 September, Letters & Papers, vol.1 (1920), no.2243
  14. ^ Becker, Marc; Tutillo, Silvia (2009). Historia agraria y social de Cayambe. Quito: FLACSO / Ediciones Abya-Yala. p. 22. ISBN 978-9978-67-214-3. Consultado el 8 de junio de 2015.
  15. ^ Kristina Nilsdotter Gyllenstierna, urn:sbl:13412, Svenskt biografiskt lexikon (art av Hans Gillingstam), hämtad 2014-12-28.
  16. ^ Erik Turesson (Bielke), urn:sbl:18162, Svenskt biografiskt lexikon (art av G. Carlsson.), hämtad 2014-07-14
  17. ^ Sjöberg, Maria (Swedish): Kvinnor i fält 1550-1850 (Women in the field 1550-1850) (2008) Gidlunds Förlag.
  18. ^ Barbro Stigsdotter, urn:sbl:19056, Svenskt biografiskt lexikon (art av S. Samuelsson.), hämtad 2014-12-28.
  19. ^ Martínez Gil, Fernando (2005). María Pacheco: la mujer valerosa, historia de doña María Pacheco, comunera de Castilla (1497-1531). Volumen 3 de Biografías Castilla-La Mancha. Almud / Centro de Estudios de Castilla-La Mancha, D.L. (Ciudad Real). ISBN 84-934140-1-8.
  20. ^ Lisbet Scheutz (2001 (2003) nuytgåva). Berömda och glömda stockholmskvinnor: sju stadsvandringar: 155 kvinnoporträtt. (Famous and forgotten women of Stockholm: seven tours: 155 female profiles) Stockholm: MBM. ISBN 91-973725-3-6 Libris 8392583
  21. ^ Feicken, Hille, in: Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland. URL: http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/vrouwenlexicon/lemmata/data/Feicken [09/02/2016]
  22. ^ Acosta, Joaquín 1901: Compendio histórico del descubrimiento y colonización de la Nueva Granada. Librería Colombiana, Bogotá. Biblioteca Virtual del Banco de la República, 2004.
  23. ^ South America By Risa Brown p.21
  24. ^ Journey into Europe: Islam, Immigration, and Identity By Akbar Ahmed p. 502
  25. ^ Monthly Chronicle of North-country Lore and Legend. Published for the Proprietors of the New Castle Weekly Chronicle by Walter Scott, Newcastle-On-Tyne, and 24 Warwick Lane, Paternoster Row, London. 1888. p. 245.
  26. ^ (1842) "Heroínas Portuguesas". O Recreio (jornal das famílias) 8. Imprensa Nacional.
  27. ^ Elizabeth Ewan, Sue Innes & Sian Reynolds: The Biographical Dictionary of Scottish Women: From the Earliest Times to 2004
  28. ^ War Elephants By John M. Kistler, p.208
  29. ^ Women's Roles in Latin America and the Caribbean By Kathryn A. Sloan, p.171
  30. ^ http://sejarahmalaysia.pnm.my/portalBI/detail.php?section=sm04&spesifik_id=28&ttl_id=12 Jelasin Fort
  31. ^ Legendary Princesses of Malaysia By Raman Krishnan
  32. ^ Lily Xiao Hong Lee and Sue Wiles, Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Women, p. 433.
  33. ^ "Wa Shi (1498–1560) - Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  34. ^ Antonia Fraser, Mary, Queen of Scots, Dell Publishing Co., Inc., New York, March 1971, originally published by Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, 1969
  35. ^ India's Road to Nationhood: A Political History of the Subcontinent By Wilhelm von Pochhammer p.258
  36. ^ 50 Great Freedom Fighters By Rishi Raj
  37. ^ Gribble, Francis Henry (1917). Women in war. Dutton. p. 142. ISBN 1-120-05510-5.
  38. ^ "208 (Anteckningar om svenska qvinnor)". runeberg.org. 19 September 1864. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  39. ^ Biographical Dictionary of Scottish Women edited by Elizabeth L. Ewan, Sue Innes, Sian Reynolds, Rose Pipes p.61
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  41. ^ Ephemeris seu diarium eorum, quae circa Herelemum nobilitatissimum clarissimumque Hollandiae oppidum evenerunt, abs sexto Iduum Decembrium anni humanae salutis 1572, usque ad 14 Kalendarum Martium anni 1573, ab oculato teste in gratiam veritatis amantium diligenter fideliterque collectum, Latin title of anonymous manuscript published in Delft in 1573
  42. ^ djr (18 January 2018). "Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland". www.historici.nl. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  43. ^ a b Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland (DVN)
  44. ^ Walter Lee Williams, The Spirit and the Flesh (Boston: Beacon Press, 1988, p. 233)
  45. ^ Turnbull, Stephen (2012-01-20). Samurai Women 1184–1877. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781846039522
  46. ^ Instituut voor Nederlandse geschiedenis
  47. ^ Dianne Dugaw: Warrior Women and Popular Balladry, 1650-1850
  48. ^ Jōmo oyobi Jōmojin (in Japanese). 1931.
  49. ^ 新田の史蹟 (in Japanese). 岡部福蔵. 1938.
  50. ^ Turnbull, Stephen (2012-01-20). Samurai Women 1184–1877. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781846039522.
  51. ^ Bacon, Alice Mabel (2015), "SAMURAI WOMEN", Japanese Girls and Women, Cambridge University Press, pp. 196–227, doi:10.1017/cbo9781316144657.009, ISBN 9781316144657
  52. ^ 芳賀登 (1998). 日本女性人名辞典: 普及版 (in Japanese). 東京: 日本図書センター. ISBN 9784820578819. OCLC 41553996.
  53. ^ Biografienummer in 1001 Vrouwen: 147
  54. ^ Perelló Renedo, Esteban (2000). María Pita e dezaseis dias de maio. Hércules ediciones.
  55. ^ A Companion to Women's Military History, edited by Barton C. Hacker and Margaret Vining, 2012 p.68-69
  56. ^ Jyotsna Kamat. "Education in Karnataka through the ages: Education Among Muslims". Retrieved 2006-12-24.
  57. ^ Tegenborg Falkdalen, Karin, Vasadrottningen: en biografi över Katarina Stenbock 1535-1621 [The Vasa Queen: A biography of Catherine Stenbock, 1535-1621], Historiska media, Lund, 2015
  58. ^ "Ensure Belwadi Mallamma of Belgaum district gets her place in international history". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 2008-10-26. Archived from the original on 30 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-17.
  59. ^ "Women of prominence in Karnataka". Archived from the original on January 8, 2014. Retrieved 2008-11-17.
  60. ^ Alpern, Stanley B. (1998). Amazons of Black Sparta: The Women Warriors of Dahomey (1st ed.). New York, U.S.: New York University Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-0678-7.
  61. ^ António Maria José de Melo César e Meneses Sabugosa (conde de). Neves de Antanho. [S.l.]: Livraria Bertrand. 315 p.
  62. ^ djr (18 January 2018). "Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland". www.historici.nl. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  63. ^ Turnbull, Stephen (2012-01-20). Samurai Women 1184–1877. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781846039522.
  64. ^ Turnbull, Stephen (2012-01-20). Samurai Women 1184–1877. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781846039522.
  65. ^ Turnbull, Stephen (2012-01-20). Samurai Women 1184–1877. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781846039522.
  66. ^ Turnbull, Stephen (2012-01-20). Samurai Women 1184–1877. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781780963334.
  67. ^ djr (18 January 2018). "Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland". www.historici.nl. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  68. ^ Robert Aldrich; Garry Wotherspoon. (Eds.) (2002). Who's who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity to World War II (2nd ed.). London: Taylor & Francis/Routledge. p. 178. ISBN 978-0-415-15983-8.
  69. ^ "Westgiöta Gustavianer - En kulturhistorisk förening som levandegör den gustavianska tiden" (PDF). Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  70. ^ Prillarguri og slektskretsen hennes (Lars Loberg. Norwegian Genealogical Society. 2003)
  71. ^ "Slaget ved Kringen". arkivverket.no. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
  72. ^ "Qin Liangyu – Commander-in-Chief of Sichuan Province". Colorq.org. Retrieved 2008-06-30.
  73. ^ Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Women, Volume II: Tang Through Ming 618-1644. Edited by Lily Xiao Hong Lee and Sue Wiles p.319, 2014
  74. ^ (2003), Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico do Espírito Santo, nr. 57
  75. ^ djr (18 January 2018). "Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland". www.historici.nl. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  76. ^ djr (18 January 2018). "Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland". www.historici.nl. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  77. ^ a b Borgström Eva(in Swedish) : Makalösa kvinnor: könsöverskridare i myt och verklighet (Marvelous women : genderbenders in myth and reality) Alfabeta/Anamma, Stockholm 2002. ISBN 91-501-0191-9 (inb.). Libris 8707902.
  78. ^ djr (18 January 2018). "Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland". www.historici.nl. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  79. ^ djr (18 January 2018). "Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland". www.historici.nl. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  80. ^ Grace under pressure: the emergence of women in sport - Page 100, Adrianne Blue - 1987
  81. ^ "Gao Guiying – General of the Peasant Rebels". Colorq.org. Retrieved 2008-06-30.
  82. ^ Women's Lives: Biographies
  83. ^ Women's Lives: Fire and Siege
  84. ^ a b John A. Lynn: The French Wars 1667-1714: The Sun King at War (2002)
  85. ^ "General Shen Yunying – Complete in Loyalty and Filial Piety". Colorq.org. Retrieved 2008-06-30.
  86. ^ John Burke, A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Commoners of Great Britain and Ireland, p.308
  87. ^ Lee, Sidney (1890). "Harley, Brilliana". In Stephen, Leslie; Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography 24. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  88. ^ Purkiss, Diane. (2007) The English Civil War: A People's History. London: Harper. p.249
  89. ^ Cooper, Thompson. "Arundell, Blanche, Lady." A New Biographical Dictionary: Containing Concise Notices of Eminent Persons of All Ages and Countries: and More Particularly of ... Great Britain and Ireland. London: Bell, 1873. googlebooks Accessed January 1, 2008
  90. ^ djr (18 January 2018). "Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland". www.historici.nl. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  91. ^ Draper, Peter (1864), "Charlotte de Tremouille", The House of Stanley; Including the Sieges of Lathom Hous, whith Notices of Relative and Co-temporary Incidents &c., Ormskirk: T. Hutton, pp. 242–246
  92. ^ "JACQUELIN, FRANÇOISE-MARIE". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. University of Toronto Press. 1979–2005. Retrieved 2012-10-28.
  93. ^ The Hidden Treasure: A Biography of Pas̲htoon Poets By Muḥammad Hotak, ʻAbd al-Ḥayy Ḥabībī, p.135
  94. ^ Pitts, Vincent Joseph. : La Grande Mademoiselle at the Court of France, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-8018-6466-6.
  95. ^ djr (18 January 2018). "Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland". www.historici.nl. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  96. ^ djr (18 January 2018). "Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland". www.historici.nl. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  97. ^ djr (18 January 2018). "Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland". www.historici.nl. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  98. ^ George Marcu (coord.), Enciclopedia personalităţilor feminine din România, Editura Meronia, Bucureşti, 2012.
  99. ^ Dansk biografisk Lexikon / VII. Bind. I. Hansen - Holmsted /
  100. ^ djr (18 January 2018). "Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland". www.historici.nl. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  101. ^ djr (18 January 2018). "Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland". www.historici.nl. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  102. ^ Pennington, Reina (2003). Amazons to Fighter Pilots: A Biographical Dictionary of Military Women. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p. 28. ISBN 0313327076.
  103. ^ Natalʹi︠a︡ Lʹvovna Pushkareva, Eve Levin, "Women in Russian history: from the tenth to the twentieth century", M.E. Sharpe, 1997
  104. ^ Lily Xiao Hong Lee, Clara Lau, A.D. Stefanowska: Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Women: v. 1: The Qing Period, 1644-1911
  105. ^ Jessica Munns & Penny Richards: The Clothes that Wear Us: Essays on Dressing and Transgressing in Eighteenth-century culture (1999)
  106. ^ Buchanan, Francis (1988). A journey from Madras through the countries of Mysore, Canara, and Malabar : for the express purpose of investigating the state of agriculture, arts and commerce, the religion, manners, and customs, the history natural and civil, and antiquities (1st AES reprint. ed.). New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. p. 126. ISBN 9788120603868.
  107. ^ Woman, Her History and Her Struggle for Emancipation By B. S. Chandrababu, L. Thilagavathi, p.242
  108. ^ The Monumental Nation: Magyar Nationalism and Symbolic Politics in Fin-de-siecle Hungary By Bálint Varga, p.96
  109. ^ djr (18 January 2018). "Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland". www.historici.nl. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  110. ^ Daniel Defoe, Roxana; or, The fortunate mistress: and The life and adventures of Mother Ross (New York: H. G. Bohn, 1855)
  111. ^ Isabelle Bauino, Jacques Carré, Cécile Révauger: The Invisible Woman: Aspects Of Women's Work In Eighteenth-century Britain
  112. ^ Anna Isabèlla Gonzaga duchessa di Mantova на сайте Treccani.it. Encyclopedia Italiana
  113. ^ Powers,, John; Templeman, David (2012). Historical Dictionary of Tibet. Scarecrow Press. p. 245. ISBN 0810879840.

Further reading[edit]

  • De Pauw, Linda Grant. Battle Cries and Lullabies: Women in War from Prehistory to the Present (University of Oklahoma Press, 1998), popular history by a leading scholar
  • Dugaw, Dianne. Warrior Women and Popular Balladry: 1650-1850 (Cambridge University Press, 1989)
  • Fraser, Antonia. The Warrior Queens (Vintage Books, 1990)
  • Hacker, Barton C. "Women and Military Institutions in Early Modern Europe: A Reconnaissance," Signs (1981), v6 pp. 643–71.
  • Illston, James Michael. 'An Entirely Masculine Activity’? Women and War in the High and Late Middle Ages Reconsidered (MA thesis, University of Canterbury, 2009) full text online, with detailed review of the literature
  • Little, Ann. Abraham in Arms: War and Gender in Colonial New England (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007)
  • Lynn, John. "Women, Armies, and Warfare in Early Modern Europe" (Cambridge University Press, 2008)
  • McLaughlin, Megan. "The Woman Warrior: Gender, Warfare and Society in Medieval Europe." Women’s Studies (1990) 17: 193-209.
  • Martino-Trutor, Gina Michelle. "Her Extraordinary Sufferings and Services”: Women and War in New England and New France, 1630-1763" PhD Dissertation, U of Minnesota, 2012. online
  • Rediker, Marcus. "Liberty Beneath the Jolly Roger: The Lives of Anne Bonny and Mary Read, Pirates" in In Iron Men, Wooden Women: Gender and Seafaring in the Atlantic World, 1700-1920 ed by Margaret Creighton and Lisa Norling, pp 1-33 (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996)
  • Stolterer, Helen. "Figures of Female Militancy in Medieval France," Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 16 (1991): 522-549
  • Taufer, Alison. "The Only Good Amazon is a Converted Amazon: The Woman Warrior and Christianity in the Amadís Cycle" in Playing With Gender: A Renaissance Pursuit ed. by Jean R. Brink et al. pp 35–51. (University of Illinois Press, 1991)

External links[edit]