|Elevation||200 m (700 ft)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
Yingkiong is the administrative headquarter of the Upper Siang district in the state of Arunachal Pradesh in India. It is a small town located 1 km east of Siang river in Upper Siang, Arunachal Pradesh. It is situated at an elevation of 200 meters (700 ft) above sea level, to its west flows the Siang river also known as Brahmaputra river in Assam region or (yarlung Zangbo/Tsangpo of Tibet). According to 2011 Census the town has a population of 8573 persons.
Prior to 1995, the district of Upper Siang was a part of East Siang district. Its bifurcation from East Siang was carried out in the same year. The administrative district Upper Siang where the town is located dates back to time when Arunachal Pradesh was an Independent region. The region was not brought under administrative control of the British or other powers till the Anglo-Burmese war of 1826-1861. Post Anglo-Burmese war and the subsequent treaty of Yandaboo between Burma and the British expeditionary forces, the North-Eastern region of Assam, Cachar, Manipur which were earlier in Burmese occupation was ceded to British. However, the British control did not extend up to the state of Arunachal Pradesh as a whole, as the British exercised control only up to Pasighat town in East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh. In 1911 post Anglo-Abor wars the British included this region under its administrative control. It fell under the administrative control of the Assistant Political Officer stationed at Sadiya in Assam during the period.Among which Francis Jack Needham appointed in 1882 as Assistant Political Officer and Noel Williamson who was later assassinated by locals of Komsing village in East Siang district was most prominent.
The topography of Yingkiong town is characterised by hilly terrains and river valley, the town is located at coordinates 28.61037°N 95.047531°E, and sits at an elevation of 200 m (660 ft) above sea level, adjacent to its west flows the river Siang. The Siang is known by different names Yarlung Zangbo (Tsangpo) in Tibet and Brahmaputra river in Assam region. It is bounded by Tibet region on the North, Dibang valley in the East, to its west lies west Siang district and East Siang District in the South. The Town is surrounded by hills on all side and perennial river Siang flows on its west. Towns that are located on North of Yingkiong near the Indo-China border are Tuting, Singging, Bishing. Important villages and hamlets surrounding township are Simong, Gobuk, Puging, Pangkang, Gette, Moying, Bomdo, Likor, and Millang, among others.
Yingkiong town has relatively warm subtropical climate with highest recorded temperature at 39 degrees in Summer and 4 degree celsius in winter. and it is relatively humid region.The highest recorded annual rainfall of Yingkiong is 3116 mm. The upper regions receives snow falls for most period of the year.
Agriculture is the main occupation,a major source of livelihood.Of the gross 69 percent household engaged in agriculture in the entire Upper Siang,Yingkiong township has the highest number of urban agrarian households Jhum cultivation(slash and burn) and Terrace farming technique is most common. Rice, Maize and Millet constitutes the principal food crop,Cash crops like turmeric,surgarcane are commonly grown. beside agriculture, cultivation of variety of local vegetables and sale at the daily market and handicrafts weaving like bamboo stool known as 'Murha' is a common activity.Cultivation of seasonal fruits like orange,pineapple are common and then during period of favourable cultivation and surplus output they are bulk transported for sale in local market or outside the town in Pasighat. Pisciculture(Fish farming) is also common and it is promoted under centrally sponsored FFDA(Fish Farmer Development Agency) programme to generate employment for locals and revenues for the State. Adi people are skilled at making a distinct type of traditional basket called 'Egin' .It is used for carrying daily household items like rice,wheat and dried woods. A variety of Black and Red Tea called Siang Tea are also produced in Deki Tea estate at Ramsing Village for export and domestic consumption.
As of 2011 census of the Government of India, the town has a total population of 8573 persons. The male population was 4,381 and the female 4,192, with 1,139 persons in the age group of 0 to 6. The total working population was 3,787 persons, with the male working population at 2,221 and the female at 1,566. The literacy rate of the region is 64%. The female literacy rate is 44.89% and male literacy 55%. It has a non-working population of 4,786 persons, mostly of dependent age. Adi is the major dialect spoken in the area. The Hindi language is commonly used as Lingua Franca to communicate with people of diverse speech or who do not speak Adi.
Religion wise population distribution(2001 Census):-
|Total Population||Hinduism||Islam||Christianity||Sikhism||Buddhist||Jain||Donyi-Polo||Not Stated|
- Solung festival is celebrated for agriculture and good harvest, prevalent among the Adi community are various myths, stories, faiths and beliefs about the origin of the Solung festivity. Generally celebrated mid August–September, the date for the festival is fixed by the village council called 'Kebang'. Sometimes, the 'Gam' (village headman) fixes the date in consultation with other leaders of the village. On the day, villagers prepare rice-beer ('Apong'). Fresh vegetables and plenty of meats are also stored for the occasion.
- Aran(Unying Aran) is a new year festival of the Adi community celebrated in the districts of East and Upper Siang. It marks the arrival of the spring season. During the festival, male elders of the village perform the Bari dance, and young boys and girls performs the Yakjong dance. The dances narrate the stories of origin of the festival, and also pray for good health and prosperity of people.
- Etor festival is celebrated on May 15 by Adi tribes of East and Upper Siang. Etor literally means 'a fence' since it is related to protection of crops by fencing cultivated lands and earlier local bovine (Mithuns) were kept protected using fencing in large fields. Huge feast and offerings are made to gods and is celebrated to begin the annual agricultural cycle of the community
- Siang River festival was previously known as the Brahmaputra Darshan Festival, later it was renamed to Siang River Festival. After 2005, Yingkiong, Tuting and Pasighat were chosen as the places to conduct this festival of Communal Harmony.
The town is connected to the rest of the country and Arunachal Pradesh via National Highway 513(NH-513) and NH-52 from Pasighat to Itanagar with mode of transport includes daily sumo (taxi) services and APSTs(Arunachal Pradesh State Transport) bus services. There is no direct aerial connectivity and an earlier one was limited to Mohanbari Airport in Dibrugarh. In 2018 newly built airport was operationalised in Pasighat town which is currently the nearest airport to reach Yingkiong. Helicopter services are available from Pasighat, Itanagar and from Assam to reach the town. There are two heliports in the town, one near Siang and the other opposite of the District Collector office,Yingkiong that facilitates helicopter landing services. The nearest Railway station is in Murkongselek in the Jonai District of Assam to connect Yingkiong town via Pasighat.
Notable tourist spots in and around the town:
- Jengging-Yingkiong Circuit — a small town and trekking site, situated at a distance of approximately 20 km (12 mi).
- Mouling National Park — created in 1982, the park has abundant flora and fauna including red panda, hoolock gibbons, tigers, wild water buffalo, panther, elephant, hog deer, barking deer, sambar deer, and python.
- Palyul Gompa — a sacred Buddhist temple, located in Tuting, roughly 300 km (190 mi) from Headquarter Yingkiong towards the North.
- Tuting-Geling Singha Triangle — the 'Pemako Zone' of the Tibetan form of Buddhism; it lies amidst natural lakes, very close to Indo-China border.
- Gandhi Bridge — a hanging bridge over river Siang, made of cane and timber, on the way to Tuting and Moying.
- Ekodumbeng-Ruitala — a region famous for tuber-root like poisonous aconite used for hunting game; animals sighted here include the Gnu goat, musk deer, and various bird species. This place also hold religious significance for followers of Buddhism as these region is also called Riu Tala-(Amlokeshwara) meaning a Paradise.
- Mariyang-Pekimodi — home to native tribes of Upper Siang called Pasi, Padam, Dalbing, Millang at a distance of 50 km (31 mi) southeast of Yingkiong is the small town of Mariyang, situated at the confluence of the Yammeng and Yamne rivers. Damroh village is the largest village in the Upper Siang district. This region is known for sightings of aircraft wreckage of United States lost in 1944 during Second World War.
- Tsitapuri Circuit — pilgrimage site amidst serene lakes and mountains, covered with snows throughout the year.
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