Yogi Nath

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Yogi Nath is a Shaivism-related group of monks which emerged around the 13th-century. They are sometimes called Jogi or simply Yogi, and are known for a variety of siddha yoga practices.[1] Their tradition is known as Nath Sampradaya.[2]


The yogis were primarily associated with the Yogic-traditions promoted by the great Nath saints, e.g. Matsyendranath, Gorakshanath, Chauranginath etc. Hatha yoga is considered as the prominent part of those traditions promoted by these great Nath masters. The Nath Sampradaya is considered as a development of the earlier Siddha or Avadhuta Sampradaya,[3] an ancient lineage of spiritual masters. The Nath yogis are classical followers of Shaivism.[1]


The principles of Yoga philosophy of Nath tradition are stated in various books e.g. Gorakshagita, Goraksha Paddhati, Siddha Siddhanta Paddhati, Amaraugha Sasana, Amaraugha Prabodha, Mahartha Manjari, Gheranda Samhita, etc., all written in Sanskrit. Hatha yoga is a holistic path of yoga which includes disciplines, postures (asana), purification procedures (shatkriya), gestures (mudra), breathing (pranayama), meditation (dhyana), samadhi.[citation needed]

The Nath tradition is a syncretic Yoga and Vedanta schools of Hindu philosophy based Shaiva tradition, that reveres Shiva and Dattatreya. Its founding is attributed to the ideas of Matsyendranath and Gorakshanath, developed further with an additional seven other Siddha Yoga Gurus called "Naths" (literally, lords).[1] The Nath Yogi sampradaya and monastic organizations grew starting with the 13th century,[1] with its matha headquarters in Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh. Many of their mathas are found in the northern, central and western states of India particularly in the Himalayas, but archeological inscriptions suggest their mathas existed in south India as well. The early Nath monks received endowments in Karnataka, for example, between the 10th and 13th century, which later became a temple and Shaiva matha hub for them near Mangalore.[4] The Kadri matha, for instance, is one of the legendary monasteries in the Nath tradition which attracted converts from Buddhism and infusion of Buddhist ideas into Shaivism.[4]

Nath Shaiva monastic organization was one of those Hindu monk groups that militarized and took up arms following the Muslim conquest of India, to resist persecution.[5][6][7] They were scorned and persecuted by Mughal Empire officials, and by social, cultural and religious elites.[8][9] However, the Nath yogi monks have been very popular with the rural population in South Asia since medieval times.[10]

The Nath tradition of Shaivism is credited with establishing numerous Shiva Hindu temples and monasteries, particularly in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, north Bihar, and Nepal.[11]

Yogi Nath in Bengal[edit]

In British colonial census, Yogi Nath were classified as a Bengali Hindu caste descended from the Nath Sampradaya (sect).[12][13] Many of them then settled in the outlying tracts of eastern Bengal, especially in the districts of Sylhet, Tipperah, Noakhali, Chittagong, Mymensingh and Dhaka. Many of the yogis adopted weaving as profession.[14]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase. p. 308. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5.
  2. ^ AK Banerjea (1983), Philosophy of Gorakhnath with Goraksha-Vacana-Sangraha, ISBN 978-8120805347
  3. ^ Deshpande, M.N. (1986). The Caves of Panhale-Kaji. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India, Government of India.
  4. ^ a b White, David Gordon (2012). The Alchemical Body: Siddha Traditions in Medieval India. University of Chicago Press. pp. 94–97.
  5. ^ David Lorenzen (2006), Who Invented Hinduism, Yoda Press, ISBN 978-8190227261, pages 51-63
  6. ^ David Gordon White (2011), Sinister Yogis, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0226895147, pages 198-207
  7. ^ William Pinch (2012), Warrior Ascetics and Indian Empires, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1107406377, pages 4-9, 28-34, 61-65, 150-151, 189-191, 194-207
  8. ^ White, David Gordon (2012). The Alchemical Body: Siddha Traditions in Medieval India. University of Chicago Press. pp. 8–9.
  9. ^ Shail Mayaram (2003), Against History, Against State, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231127301, pages 40-41, 39
  10. ^ David N. Lorenzen and Adrián Muñoz (2012), Yogi Heroes and Poets: Histories and Legends of the Naths, SUNY Press, ISBN 978-1438438900, pages x-xi
  11. ^ White, David Gordon (2012). The Alchemical Body: Siddha Traditions in Medieval India. University of Chicago Press. p. 94-101, 104-105, 118.
  12. ^ Mitra, Satish Chandra (1914). যেশার খুলনার ইিতহাস [The History of Jessore and Khulna] (in Bengali). Volume 1. Kolkata: Deys Publishing. pp. 384–85. ISBN 81-7612-766-3.
  13. ^ Kundu, Santosh Kumar (1890). বাঙালী িহন্দু জািত পিরচয় [An Introduction of Bengali Hindu Castes] (in Bengali). Kolkata: Presidency Library. pp. 160–164. ISBN 978-81-89466-13-8.
  14. ^ Wise, James (1883). Notes on the Races, Castes and Trades of Eastern Bengal. London: Harrison and Sons. pp. 296–300.