Paul, Alice, 1885-1977

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Quaker, lawyer, and lifelong activist for women's rights, Alice Paul was educated at Swarthmore and the University of Pennsylvania, where her doctoral dissertation was on the legal status of women in Pennsylvania. She later earned law degrees from Washington College of Law and American University.

Paul also studied economics and sociology at the universities of London and Birmingham and worked at a number of British social settlements (1907-1910). While in England she was active in the Women's Social and Political Union and was arrested and jailed repeatedly as a participant in the campaign for women's rights led by Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters, Christabel and Sylvia.

Returning to the United States in 1910, Paul was appointed chair of the Congressional Committee of the National American Woman Suffrage Association in 1912. It campaigned for the passage of a federal amendment and for a time functioned concurrently with the new Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage, founded by AP in April 1913. In June 1916, following a clash between advocates of a federal amendment and proponents of a state-by-state approach, Paul founded the National Woman's Party, its sole plank a resolution calling for immediate passage of the federal amendment guaranteeing the enfranchisement of women. After the ratification of the suffrage amendment in 1920, the NWP began a long battle to end all legal discrimination against women in the United States and to raise the legal, social, and economic status of women around the world. The Equal Rights Amendment, as written by Paul in 1923, was first introduced in Congress in December of that year.

On the international front, in the 1920s the NWP campaigned for women's rights in conjunction with the Six Point Group and the Open Door Council, and in 1928 helped to establish the Inter-American Commission of Women, an advisory unit of the Pan American Union (later the Organization of American States). Beginning in 1920, the NWP, through its membership in Equal Rights International and with the Women's Consultative Committee on Nationality of the League of Nations, worked to improve the legal status of women.

In 1938 Paul founded the World Woman's Party in Geneva, Switzerland. After the war, the WWP lobbied successfully for the inclusion of equality provisions in the United Nations charter, and worked in close consultation with the Commission on the Status of women and the Commission on Human Rights on numerous reports on the status of women, and on including equal rights provisions in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Paul died in Moorestown, N.J., on July 9, 1977.

From the description of Papers, 1785-1985 (inclusive), 1805-1985 (bulk). (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 232007623

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
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referencedIn Papers, 1874-1945 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Wisconsin Society for the Equal Rights Amendment. Records, 1945-1962. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Papers in the Woman's Rights Collection, 1840-1952 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Papers, 1851-1958 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Martin, Anne, 1875-1951. Portraits of women suffragists from the Anne Henrietta Martin papers [graphic]. Bancroft Library
creatorOf National Woman's Party. National Woman's Party records, 1850-1975 (bulk 1913-1972). Library of Congress
referencedIn Granger, Dorothy Shipley, 1899-1998. Papers, 1914-1998 (inclusive), 1937-1978 (bulk). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Ransome, Amy C., 1872-1942. Amy C. Ransome collection on Women's Suffrage, 1884-1949. University of Southern California, USC Libraries
referencedIn Papers, 1898, 1909-1963 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Sophia Smith Collection. Women's Rights Collection, 1789-1999 (ongoing) (bulk 1846-1983). Smith College, Neilson Library
referencedIn Leonard, Margery C., 1907-. Papers, 1929-1990 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Papers, 1938(1942-1947) 1959 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Lindseth, Jon A.,. Lindseth collection of American woman suffrage, [ca. 1820-1920]. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Papers, 1943-1948 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Johnson, Grace A., 1871-1952. Papers: Series F-I, 1859-1950 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
creatorOf Paul, Alice, 1885-1977. Reminiscences of Alice Paul : oral history, 1973. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Katzenstein, Caroline. Caroline Katzenstein papers 1850-1965 bulk 1909-1965. Historical Society of Pennsylvania
referencedIn Amy C. Ransome collection on Women's Suffrage, 1884-1949 USC Libraries Special Collections
creatorOf Hayden, Gillette, 1880-1929. Papers 1916-1927. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
referencedIn Rupp, Leila J., 1950-. Audiotape collection of Leila J. Rupp and Verta A. Taylor, 1979-1983. Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
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referencedIn Papers, 1896-1956 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
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referencedIn Papers, 1872-1945 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
creatorOf Paul, Alice, 1885-1977. [Videotape collection] [videorecording]. Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Ames, Blanche. Papers in the Woman's Rights Collection, 1913-1940 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Papers, (inclusive), (bulk), 1914-1998, 1937-1978 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
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referencedIn Branham, Lucy Gwynne, 1892-1966. Lucy Gwynne Branham papers, 1892-2004 (bulk 1917-1966). Library of Congress
referencedIn Amy C. Ransome collection on Women's Suffrage, 1884-1949 USC Libraries Special Collections
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referencedIn Women's Rights Collection MS 397., 1789-2000, 1864-1983 Sophia Smith Collection
creatorOf Videotapes, 1976-1977 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Autograph Letter Collection: Emancipation of Women, British Commonwealth and United States of America, 1876-1951 The Women' s Library
referencedIn Pollitzer, Anita, 1894-1975. Papers, 1923-1964, 1945-1946 (bulk) Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Lola Maverick Lloyd papers, 1856-1949 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Collection, 1921-1961 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Wiley, Anna Kelton, 1877-1964. Papers, 1893-1962 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Roberts, Margaret Stephenson, d.1952. Papers, 1896-1952 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Woman's Rights Collection (WRC) Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Suffragists Oral History Project (Bancroft Library). Transcripts of oral history project, 1959-1974 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
creatorOf Catt, Carrie Chapman, 1859-1947. Correspondence with Alice Paul, and addresses, 1913-1917. Pennsylvania State University Libraries
referencedIn The, Daily Worker, and, The Daily World, Photographs Collection, Bulk, 1930-1990, 1920-2001 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
referencedIn Park, Maud Wood, 1871-1955. Papers in the Woman's Rights Collection, 1870-1960 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Norris, Katharine Augusta, d. 1949. Papers, 1943-1948 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn National Woman's Party Records, 1850-1975, (bulk 1913-1972) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Paul, Alice, 1885-1977. Papers, 1785-1985 (inclusive), 1805-1985 (bulk). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Butler, Jessee H. Suffragists. California State University, Long Beach
referencedIn National Woman's Party. National Woman's Party papers: the suffrage years, 1889-1940 (inclusive), 1913-1920 (bulk), [microform]. Yale University Library
referencedIn Inventory to the Records of the Women's Project of New Jersey, 1984-2004 Rutgers University Libraries. Special Collections and University Archives.
referencedIn Hallinan, Hazel Hunkins. Talk to Women's Press Club : Washington, D.C. : ms., 1977 Aug. 23. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Mason, Ruth Fitch, 1890-1974. Papers, 1908-1962. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Kitchelt, Florence Ledyard Cross, 1874-1961. Papers, 1885-1961 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Rebecca Shelley Papers, 1890-1984 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Mary E. Gawthorpe Papers, Bulk, 1907-1933, 1881-1990 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
referencedIn Mason, Ruth Fitch, 1890-1974. Ruth Fitch Mason papers, 1908-1962. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Anthony, Susan B. (Susan Brownell), 1820-1906. Anthony family collection, 1844-1945. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Federal Writers' Project. Women's archives, 1890-1953. New Jersey Historical Society Library
referencedIn Papers, 1867, 1895, 1902-1948 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Foley, Margaret, 1875-1957. Papers, 1847-1968 (inclusive), 1909-1929 (bulk). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Papers, 1893-1962 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Paschall, Edith Verlenden, 1881-1961. Edith V. Paschall papers related to Swarthmore College alumni activities, 1933-1961 bulk 1957-1961. Historical Society of Pennsylvania
referencedIn Hunkins-Hallinan, Hazel. Papers, 1864-1984 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Papers of Lucile Atcherson Curtis, (inclusive), (bulk), 1863-1986, 1917-1927 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
creatorOf Wood, Charles Erskine Scott, 1852-1944. Papers of C. E. S. Wood, 1829-1980 (bulk 1870-1940). Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
creatorOf Paul, Alice, 1885-1977. Papers: Series I-II, 1785-1985 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Seydell, Mildred, 1889-1988. Mildred Seydell papers, 1842-1978. Emory University Library, Special Collect Department
referencedIn Mabel Vernon papers, 1914-1920 Bancroft Library
referencedIn Woman's Rights Collection (WRC) Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Hill, Elsie Mary, 1883-1970. Elsie M. Hill papers, 1898-1970. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Dennett, Mary Ware, 1872-1947. Papers: Series III, 1909-1942 (inclusive) [microform]. Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Anonymous. Scrapbook, 1910-1919 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Papers, 1864-1984 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Gillmore, Inez Haynes, 1873-1970. Papers, 1872-1945 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
creatorOf Paul, Alice, 1885-1977. Papers: Series III-V, 1839-1984 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Lutz, Alma. Papers, 1921-1961 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
creatorOf Lloyd, Lola Maverick, 1875-1944. Lola Maverick Lloyd papers, 1856-1949. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Lucia Isabelle Voorhees Grimes Papers, 1900-1977 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn McCulloch, Catharine Waugh, b. 1862. Series VI of the Mary Earhart Dillon Collection, 1869-1945 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Johnson, Adelaide, 1859-1955. Papers of Adelaide Johnson, 1873-1947. Library of Congress
referencedIn Fine Arts Co. of Philadelphia, Inc. Publicity books and auction catalogs, 1978-1993. Winterthur Library
referencedIn West, Helen Hunt, 1892-1963. Papers, 1917-1964 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Oakley, Violet, 1874-1961. Correspondence, 1918-1923. Temple University Libraries, Paley Library
referencedIn Powell, Rose Arnold, 1876-1961. Papers, 1922-1961 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Papers, 1948 (1950-1956) 1964 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
creatorOf Equal Suffrage Association of Idaho (Boise, Idaho). Records, 1895-1916. Idaho State Archives, Idaho State Historical Society
referencedIn Berrien, Laura M. Papers, 1944-1948 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Women's rights collection, 1914-1957. Texas Woman's University Library, Mary Evelyn Blagg-Huey Library
creatorOf Papers, 1785, 1805-1985 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn She's Nobody's Baby collection, 1980-1987 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Papers of Rebecca Hourwich Reyher, (inclusive), (bulk), 1877-1988, 1915-1970 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
creatorOf Paul, Alice, 1885-1977. Collection, 1907-1992. Swarthmore College, Peace Collection, SCPC
referencedIn Philbrook, Mary. Papers, 1843-1954. New Jersey Historical Society Library
referencedIn Batten, Pluma Burroughs Penton, 1894-. Papers, 1948-1964 (inclusive), 1950-1956 (bulk). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Papers, 1833, 1884-1972 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn White, Sue Shelton, 1887-1943. Papers, 1898-1963 (inclusive), 1909-1963 (bulk). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Papers, 1906-1961 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Papers, 1917-1964 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Pollitzer, Anita, 1894-1975. Anita Pollitzer papers, 1880-1996. University of South Carolina, University Libraries
referencedIn John Reed papers, 1903-1967. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Papers, 1913-1953 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Suffragists Oral History Collection MS 421., 1959-1977 Sophia Smith Collection
referencedIn Papers, (inclusive), (bulk), 1847-1968, 1909-1929 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Stevens, Doris, 1888-1963. Papers, 1884-1983 (inclusive), 1920-1960 (bulk). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Smith, Jane Norman, 1874-1953. Papers, 1913-1953 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Lindseth collection of American woman suffrage, [ca. 1820-1920]. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
creatorOf Anthony, Daniel Read, 1870-1931. Daniel Read Anthony, Jr., papers, 1907-1928 (bulk 1907-1908, 1926-1928). Kansas State Historical Society
referencedIn Atwater, Adeline. Adeline Lobdell Atwater papers, ca. 1932-1956. Newberry Library
referencedIn Pollitzer, Anita, 1894-1975. Anita Pollitzer family papers, 1845-1979. South Carolina Historical Society, SCHS
referencedIn Papers, 1869-1945 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Lewis, Dora Kelly, b. 1862. Collection, 1884-1921. Historical Society of Pennsylvania
referencedIn Papers, 1922 - 1961 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Matthews, Burnita Shelton, 1894-1988. Papers, 1926-1981 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Marks, Jeannette Augustus, 1875-1964. Papers, 1938-1959 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Papers, 1926-1981 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Bancroft Library. Regional Oral History Office Oral History Interviews, 1959-1979, (bulk 1969-1975) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Miller, Emma Guffey, 1874-1970. Papers: Series III-IV, 1900-1972 (inclusive) [microform]. Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
creatorOf Bancroft Library. Regional Oral History Office. Bancroft Library. Regional Oral History Office oral history interviews, 1959-1979 (bulk 1969-1975). Library of Congress
referencedIn Babcock, Caroline L. (Caroline Lexow), b. 1882. Papers of Caroline Lexow Babcock and Olive E. Hurlburt, 1906-1961 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn National Woman's Party. National Woman's Party papers, 1913-1974 (inclusive), [microform]. Yale University Library
referencedIn Catalogue I of the Regional Oral History Office, 1954-1979 Bancroft Library
referencedIn Reyher, Rebecca Hourwich, 1897-1987. Papers of Rebecca Hourwich Reyher, 1877-1988 (inclusive), 1915-1970 (bulk). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
Role Title Holding Repository
Direct Relationships
Relation Name
associatedWith Ackley, Fannie person
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associatedWith Anthony, Daniel Read, 1870-1931. person
correspondedWith Anthony, Susan B. (Susan Brownell), 1820-1906. person
associatedWith Arnold Diaz. person
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associatedWith Brent, Margaret, 1600-1670? person
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associatedWith Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage (U.S.) corporateBody
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correspondedWith Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence person
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correspondedWith Farfaglia, Donna person
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associatedWith Fry, Amelia R., person
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associatedWith Gallatin, Albert, 1761-1849 person
associatedWith Gallatin, Albert, 1761-1849. person
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correspondedWith Grabinska, Wanda person
associatedWith Grace Allen (Fitch) Johnson, 1871-1952 person
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associatedWith Grimes, Lucia Isabelle Voorhees, 1877-1978. person
associatedWith Guerrero, Christine. person
associatedWith Hallinan, Hazel Hunkins. person
associatedWith Harriet Wright (Burton) Laidlaw, 1873-1949 person
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correspondedWith Helene Granitsch person
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associatedWith Inter-American Commission of Women corporateBody
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associatedWith International Alliance of Women for Suffrage and Equal Citizenship corporateBody
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correspondedWith Iris Calderhead person
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associatedWith Katzenstein, Caroline. person
associatedWith Kitchelt, Florence Ledyard Cross, 1874-1961. person
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associatedWith Lewis, Dora Kelly, b. 1862. person
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correspondedWith Louise Van Eegan person
correspondedWith Lucile Atcherson Curtis, 1894-1986 person
associatedWith Lutz, Alma. person
associatedWith Margaret Stephenson Roberts, d. 1952 person
correspondedWith Marie Lenoel person
correspondedWith Marjory Whittemore person
associatedWith Marks, Jeannette Augustus, 1875-1964. person
associatedWith Martin, Anne, 1875-1951 person
associatedWith Martin, Anne, 1875-1951. person
associatedWith MARY (WARE) DENNETT person
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associatedWith Matthews, Burnita Shelton, 1894-1988. person
associatedWith Maud May (Wood) Park, 1871-1955 person
associatedWith McCulloch, Catharine Waugh, b. 1862. person
associatedWith Milholland, Inez, 1886-1916 person
associatedWith Milholland, Inez, 1886-1916. person
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associatedWith Murray, Mary A. person
memberOf National American Woman Suffrage Association corporateBody
memberOf National American Woman Suffrage Association. corporateBody
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associatedWith Open Door International for the Economic Emancipation of the Woman Worker corporateBody
associatedWith Open Door International for the Economic Emancipation of the Woman Worker. corporateBody
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associatedWith Pankhurst, Christabel, Dame, 1880-1958. person
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associatedWith World Woman's Party. corporateBody
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associatedWith Younger, Maud. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Moorestown NJ US
Mount Laurel NJ US
Subject
Feminists--Interviews
Christian Scientists
Women--Suffrage--History--Sources
Women--Suffrage
Sex discrimination against women--Law and legislation
Women's rights
Feminism
Society of Friends
Suffragists--History--Sources
Women--Legal status, laws, etc
Women's rights--History--Sources
Women--Employment
World War, 1939-1945--Refugees
Equal rights amendments
minimum wage
Citizenship
Women (International law)
Women--Suffrage--United States
International law
Refugees
Women--Political activity
Occupation
Social workers
Lawyers
Suffragists
Function

Person

Birth 1885-01-11

Death 1977-07-09

Information

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