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Petroleum
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Accumulation in reservoir beds

The porosity (volume of pore spaces) and permeability (capacity for transmitting fluids) of carrier and reservoir beds are important factors in the migration and accumulation of oil. Most conventional petroleum accumulations have been found in clastic reservoirs (sandstones and siltstones). Next in number are the carbonate reservoirs (limestones and dolomites). Accumulations of certain types of unconventional petroleum (that is, petroleum obtained through methods other than traditional wells) occur in shales and igneous and metamorphic rocks because of porosity resulting from fracturing. Porosities in reservoir rocks usually range from about 5 to 30 percent, but all available pore space is not occupied by petroleum. A certain amount of residual formation water cannot be displaced and is always present.

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Reservoir rocks may be divided into two main types: (1) those in which the porosity and permeability is primary, or inherent, and (2) those in which they are secondary, or induced. Primary porosity and permeability are dependent on the size, shape, and grading and packing of the sediment grains and also on the manner of their initial consolidation. Secondary porosity and permeability result from postdepositional factors, such as solution, recrystallization, fracturing, weathering during temporary exposure at Earth’s surface, and further cementation. These secondary factors may either enhance or diminish the initial porosity and permeability.

Traps

After secondary migration in carrier beds, oil and natural gas finally collect in a trap. The fundamental characteristic of a trap is an upward convex form of porous and permeable reservoir rock that is sealed above by a denser, relatively impermeable cap rock (e.g., shale or evaporites). The trap may be of any shape, the critical factor being that it is a closed inverted container. A rare exception is hydrodynamic trapping, in which high water saturation of low-permeability sediments reduces hydrocarbon permeability to near zero, resulting in a water block and an accumulation of petroleum down the structural dip of a sedimentary bed below the water in the sedimentary formation.

Structural traps

Traps can be formed in many ways. Those formed by tectonic events, such as folding or faulting of rock units, are called structural traps. The most common structural traps are anticlines, upfolds of strata that appear as inverted V-shaped regions on the horizontal planes of geologic maps. About 80 percent of the world’s petroleum has been found in anticlinal traps. Most anticlines were produced by lateral pressure, but some have resulted from the draping and subsequent compaction of accumulating sediments over topographic highs. The closure of an anticline is the vertical distance between its highest point and the spill plane, the level at which the petroleum can escape if the trap is filled beyond capacity. Some traps are filled with petroleum to their spill plane, but others contain considerably smaller amounts than they can accommodate on the basis of their size.

Another kind of structural trap is the fault trap. Here, rock fracture results in a relative displacement of strata that form a barrier to petroleum migration. A barrier can occur when an impermeable bed is brought into contact with a carrier bed. Sometimes the faults themselves provide a seal against “updip” migration when they contain impervious clay gouge material between their walls. Faults and folds often combine to produce traps, each providing a part of the container for the enclosed petroleum. Faults can, however, allow the escape of petroleum from a former trap if they breach the cap rock seal.

Other structural traps are associated with salt domes. Such traps are formed by the upward movement of salt masses from deeply buried evaporite beds, and they occur along the folded or faulted flanks of the salt plug or on top of the plug in the overlying folded or draped sediments.

Stratigraphic traps

A second major class of petroleum traps is the stratigraphic trap. It is related to sediment deposition or erosion and is bounded on one or more sides by zones of low permeability. Because tectonics ultimately control deposition and erosion, however, few stratigraphic traps are completely without structural influence. The geologic history of most sedimentary basins contains the prerequisites for the formation of stratigraphic traps. Typical examples are fossil carbonate reefs, marine sandstone bars, and deltaic distributary channel sandstones. When buried, each of these features provides a potential reservoir, which is often surrounded by finer-grained sediments that may act as source or cap rocks.

Sediments eroded from a landmass and deposited in an adjacent sea change from coarse- to fine-grained with increasing depth of water and distance from shore. Permeable sediments thus grade into impermeable sediments, forming a permeability barrier that eventually could trap migrating petroleum.

There are many other types of stratigraphic traps. Some are associated with the many transgressions (advances) and regressions (retreats) of the sea that have occurred over geologic time and the resulting deposits of differing porosities. Others are caused by processes that increase secondary porosity, such as the dolomitization of limestones or the weathering of strata once located at Earth’s surface.

Resources and reserves

Reservoirs formed by traps or seeps contain hydrocarbons that are further defined as either resources or reserves. Resources are the total amount of all possible hydrocarbons estimated from formations before wells are drilled. In contrast, reserves are subsets of resources; the sizes of reserves are determined by how economically or technologically feasible they are to extract petroleum from and use under current technological and economic conditions. Reserves are classified into various categories based on the amount that is likely to be extracted. Proven reserves have the highest certainty of successful extraction for commercial use (more than 90 percent), whereas successful extraction regarding probable and possible reserves for commercial use are estimated at 50 percent and between 10 and 50 percent respectively.

The broader category of resources includes both conventional and unconventional petroleum plays (or accumulations) as identified by analogs—that is, fields or reservoirs where there are few or no wells drilled but which are similar geologically to producing fields. For resources where some exploration or discovery activity has taken place, estimates of the size and number of undiscovered hydrocarbon accumulations are determined by technical experts and geoscientists as well as from measurements derived from geologic framework modeling and visualizations.

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