1 Frederick Jackson Turner. "Problems in American History," Aegis, VII (November 4, 1892). Reprinted in: Selected Essays (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1961), p.31.

2 Barry Fell. America B.C. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1976), p.3.


(back) 4Brian M. Fagan. The Great Journey: The Peopling Of Ancient America (New York: Thames and Hudson Ltd., 1987), p.10.

5George Catlin. Letters And Notes On The North American Indians, edited by Michael M. Mooney (New York: Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., 1975), p.148.

6Ibid., p.148.

7See: Hjalmar R. Holand. Norse Discoveries And Explorations In America, 982-1362 (New York: Dover Publications, Inc. edition, 1969. Originally published 1940), p.101.

8Earl H. Swanson, Warwick Bray and Ian Farrington. The Making of the Past: The Ancient Americas (New York: Peter Bedrick Books, 1989), pp.14 and 16.

9Jonathan Norton Leonard. The First Farmers (New York: Time-Life Books, 1973), p.139.

10Samuel E. Morison and Henry Steele Commager. The Growth Of The American Republic (New York: Oxford University Press, 1962), p.13.

11Adam Smith. The Wealth Of Nations(New York: Random House, Inc. edition, 1937. Originally published 1776), p.535. Author's Note: The word creole originally came into common use to describe American-born people of Spanish descent. Eventually, this definition was enlarged to include individuals of mixed European (Spanish or French) and African ancestry, born in the Americas

12Lewis Hanke. The Spanish Struggle For Justice In The Conquest Of America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1949), p.41.

13Ibid., pp.43-44.

14Bernard Bailyn. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1967), p.25.

15Ibid., p.80.

16John Dunn Hunter. Memoirs Of A Captivity Among The Indians Of North America, edited by Richard Drinnon (New York: Schocken Books, 1973. Originally published 1824), p.xxiii.

17Ibid., p.xxviii.

18Quoted in: Samuel M. Janney. The Life Of William Penn (Freeport, NY: Books For Libraries Press edition, 1970. Originally published 1851), p.235. From a letter written by Penn to the Free Society of Traders in 1683.

19Quoted in: Claude G. Bowers. Jefferson In Power (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1936), p.430.

20From a letter to General Chastellux, June 7, 1785. Jefferson's Letters, edited by Willson Whitman (Eau Claire, Wisconsin: E.M. Hale and Company), p.23.

21Theodore Roosevelt. The Winning Of The West, Vol.I(New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1889), pp.41-42.

22Quoted in: "Cadwallader Colden: Encroachment on Indian Lands," The Annals Of America, Vol.I (Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 1976), p.444.

23Ibid., p.446.

24Henry George. The Land Question (New York: Robert Schalkenbach Foundation edition, 1935. Originally published 1881), pp.101-102.

25Frank E. Huggett. The Land Question And European Society Since 1650 (London: Thames and Hudson Ltd., 1975), p.56.

26Jackson Turner Main. The Social Structure of Revolutionary America (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1965), p.177.

27Quoted in: Lewis Hanke. The Spanish Struggle For Justice In The Conquest Of America, p.17.

28Ibid., p.19.

29John Locke. Two Treatises Of Government, edited by Thomas I. Cook (New York: Hafner Publishing Company edition, 1947. Originally published 1690), p.137.


31Jean-Jacques Rousseau. On The Social Contract, edited by Roger D. Masters (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1978. Originally published 1756-62), p.86.

32Quoted in: Allan W. Eckert. Wilderness Empire (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 19690, pp.219-220.

33Ibid., pp.220-221.

34Quoted in: Dee Brown. Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1971), p.400.

35Thomas Jefferson. "Notes On Virginia," The Life and Selected Writings of Thomas Jefferson, edited by Adrienne Koch and William Peden (New York: Random House, 1944), p.210.

36Ibid., pp.212-213.

37Ibid., p.51.

38Bernard Bailyn. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1967), pp.283-284).

39Adam Smith. The Wealth Of Nations, p.12.

40Ibid., p.20.

41Ibid., p.21.


43Will Durant. The Story Of Civilization: Part I (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1954), p.159.

44John Hope Franklin. From Slavery to Freedom, A History of Negro Americans, fourth edition (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1974. First published 1947), p.10.

45Ibid., p.33.

46Quoted in: K.M. Panikkar. Asia And Western Dominance (London: G. Allen, 1953), p.42.

47Quoted in: G.B. Sansom. The Western World And Japan (New York: Knopf, 1950), p.57.

48Eric R. Wolf. Europe And The People Without History (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1982), pp.123-124.

49Henry Bamford Parkes. A History Of Mexico (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1969), p.71.

50Alfred N. Chandler. Land Title Origins (New York: Robert Schalkenbach Foundation, 1945), p.6.

51G.M. Trevelyan. History of England, Third Edition. Volume II (Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co., 1952), p.102.

52Ibid., p.107.

53Robert Lacey. Sir Walter Ralegh (New York: Atheneum, 1973), p.157.

54Author's Note: Mary was the granddaughter of Henry VIII's sister and would have assumed the English throne after Elizabeth's death, inasmuch as Elizabeth was childless. The Scots themselves had become strongly pro-Calvinist and had revolted against Mar

55G.M. Trevelyan. History Of England, Vol.II, p.120.

56Alfred Chandler. Land Title Origins, p.168.

57Eric R. Wolf. Europe And The People Without History (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1982), p.135.

58Ray Allen Billington. Westward Expansion, A History of the American Frontier, Third Edition (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1967), p.60.

59Ibid., pp.78-79.

60Bernard Bailyn. The Peopling of British North America (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1986), p.18.

61Allan W. Eckert. Wilderness Empire (New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1969), p.667.

62Ibid., pp.671-672.

63Ibid., p.674.

64Ibid., p.698.

65Harry M. Ward. The United Colonies of New England -- 1643-90 (New York: Vantage Press, 1961), p.131.

66Ibid. Author's note: Ward may have been unfamiliar with the numerous cases of how well the indigenous people actually adapted tot the settled way of life when this was more gradually and peacefully introduced. He raises the appropriate question of "whether a policy of conciliation would have been possible [given] the two conflicting civilizations and the lust of the settlers,"concluding that the struggle was one of "survival of the fittest."

67Andre Jardin. Tocqueville, A Biography (New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1988), p.122.

68Quoted in: George Brown Tindall. America, A Narrative History, Vol. II (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1984), p.735.

69Jefferson's Letters, edited by Willson Whitman (Eau Claire, Wisconsin: E.M. Hale and Company), p.208.

70Quoted in: Allan W. Eckert. Gateway To Empire (New York: Little, Brown & Company, 1983), pp.271-271. Author's Note: A 1956 bography of Tecumseh by Glenn Tucker (New York: Bobbs-Merrill company, Inc., p.82), in an apparent contradiction, observes that "not one sentence of this first speech has been preserved. The interpreter at Urbana was a French Canadian named Dechouset. He confessed that Tecumseh soared into such lofty flights that, though he knew Shawnee as well as his native French, it was beyond him to carry over the word pictures and conceptions into another language." Eckert's research is, however, definitively annotated.

71Quoted in: Glenn Tucker. Tecumseh, Vision af Glory (Indianapolis, Indiana: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., 1956), pp.220-201.

72Quoted in: Francis Paul Prucha. The Sword of the Republic (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1969), p.254.

73Frederick Jackson Turner. "Contributions of the West to American Democracy." Reprinted in: Selected Essays of Frederick Jackson Turner, introduced by Ray Allen Billington (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1961. Originally published 1903), pp.79-80.

74The Federalist, No. XXIV (New York: Dutton edition, 1971. Originally published 1787-88.), pp.117-118.

75Quoted in: John S. Pancake. Thomas Jefferson & Alexander Hamilton (Woodbury, NY: Barron's Educational Series, Inc., 1974), p.227.

76Quoted in: Allan W. Eckert. Gateway To Empire, p.689.